Locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) carries higher risks of local and distant recurrence when treated with surgical resection alone. Multiple treatment strategies have been investigated to reduce recurrence risk and improve survival. Currently, there are 3 primary strategies for managing LARC: (1) preoperative long-course radiotherapy (RT) combined with radiosensitizing chemotherapy, which is better tolerated than postoperative chemoradiotherapy and provides tumor downstaging and improved pathologic complete response (pCR), followed by postoperative chemotherapy; (2) preoperative short-course RT alone as an alternative strategy for reducing the risk of local recurrence, followed by adjuvant postoperative chemotherapy; and (3) total neoadjuvant therapy with induction chemotherapy followed by chemoradiotherapy to improve pCR and reduce the difficulty of delivering chemotherapy in the postoperative setting. In addition to these currently recommended treatment paradigms, promising new strategies are available for treatment reduction. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy alone may allow for omission of RT in select patients with favorable LARC. For patients who have complete clinical responses to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and RT, nonoperative management is being considered for sphincter preservation, with surgery used as salvage. These are active areas of investigation in both institutional and cooperative group trials. The results are anticipated to provide better tailoring of neoadjuvant therapy based on patient tumor and disease response characteristics.
Clayton A. Smith and Lisa A. Kachnic
Kenneth C. Anderson, Melissa Alsina, Djordje Atanackovic, J. Sybil Biermann, Jason C. Chandler, Caitlin Costello, Benjamin Djulbegovic, Henry C. Fung, Cristina Gasparetto, Kelly Godby, Craig Hofmeister, Leona Holmberg, Sarah Holstein, Carol Ann Huff, Adetola Kassim, Amrita Y. Krishnan, Shaji K. Kumar, Michaela Liedtke, Matthew Lunning, Noopur Raje, Seema Singhal, Clayton Smith, George Somlo, Keith Stockerl-Goldstein, Steven P. Treon, Donna Weber, Joachim Yahalom, Dorothy A. Shead, and Rashmi Kumar
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignant neoplasm of plasma cells that accumulate in bone marrow, leading to bone destruction and marrow failure. Recent statistics from the American Cancer Society indicate that the incidence of MM is increasing. The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) included in this issue address management of patients with solitary plasmacytoma and newly diagnosed MM.
Featured Updates to the NCCN Guidelines
Robert J. Motzer, Eric Jonasch, Shawna Boyle, Maria I. Carlo, Brandon Manley, Neeraj Agarwal, Ajjai Alva, Katy Beckermann, Toni K. Choueiri, Brian A. Costello, Ithaar H. Derweesh, Arpita Desai, Saby George, John L. Gore, Naomi Haas, Steven L. Hancock, Christos Kyriakopoulos, Elaine T. Lam, Clayton Lau, Bryan Lewis, David C. Madoff, Brittany McCreery, M. Dror Michaelson, Amir Mortazavi, Lakshminarayanan Nandagopal, Phillip M. Pierorazio, Elizabeth R. Plimack, Lee Ponsky, Sundhar Ramalingam, Brian Shuch, Zachary L. Smith, Bradley Somer, Jeffrey Sosman, Mary A. Dwyer, and Angela D. Motter
The NCCN Guidelines for Kidney Cancer provide multidisciplinary recommendations for diagnostic workup, staging, and treatment of patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). These NCCN Guidelines Insights focus on recent updates to the guidelines, including changes to certain systemic therapy recommendations for patients with relapsed or stage IV RCC. They also discuss the addition of a new section to the guidelines that identifies and describes the most common hereditary RCC syndromes and provides recommendations for genetic testing, surveillance, and/or treatment options for patients who are suspected or confirmed to have one of these syndromes.
Robert J. Motzer, Eric Jonasch, Neeraj Agarwal, Ajjai Alva, Michael Baine, Kathryn Beckermann, Maria I. Carlo, Toni K. Choueiri, Brian A. Costello, Ithaar H. Derweesh, Arpita Desai, Yasser Ged, Saby George, John L. Gore, Naomi Haas, Steven L. Hancock, Payal Kapur, Christos Kyriakopoulos, Elaine T. Lam, Primo N. Lara, Clayton Lau, Bryan Lewis, David C. Madoff, Brandon Manley, M. Dror Michaelson, Amir Mortazavi, Lakshminarayanan Nandagopal, Elizabeth R. Plimack, Lee Ponsky, Sundhar Ramalingam, Brian Shuch, Zachary L. Smith, Jeffrey Sosman, Mary A. Dwyer, Lisa A. Gurski, and Angela Motter
The NCCN Guidelines for Kidney Cancer focus on the screening, diagnosis, staging, treatment, and management of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Patients with relapsed or stage IV RCC typically undergo surgery and/or receive systemic therapy. Tumor histology and risk stratification of patients is important in therapy selection. The NCCN Guidelines for Kidney Cancer stratify treatment recommendations by histology; recommendations for first-line treatment of ccRCC are also stratified by risk group. To further guide management of advanced RCC, the NCCN Kidney Cancer Panel has categorized all systemic kidney cancer therapy regimens as “Preferred,” “Other Recommended Regimens,” or “Useful in Certain Circumstances.” This categorization provides guidance on treatment selection by considering the efficacy, safety, evidence, and other factors that play a role in treatment selection. These factors include pre-existing comorbidities, nature of the disease, and in some cases consideration of access to agents. This article summarizes surgical and systemic therapy recommendations for patients with relapsed or stage IV RCC.