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Charles M. Rudin, Christine L. Hann, Craig D. Peacock and D. Neil Watkins

A diagnosis of small cell lung cancer (SCLC) today confers essentially the same terrible prognosis that it did 25 years ago, when common use of cisplatin-based chemotherapy began for this disease. In contrast to past decades of research on many other solid tumors, studies of combination chemotherapy using later generation cytotoxics and targeted kinase inhibitors have not had a significant impact on standard care for SCLC. The past few years have seen suggestions of incrementally improved outcomes using standard cytotoxics, including cisplatin-based combination studies of irinotecan and amrubicin by Japanese research consortia. Confirmatory phase III studies of these agents are ongoing in the United States. Antiangiogenic strategies are also of primary interest and are in late-phase testing. Several novel therapeutics, including high-potency small molecule inhibitors of Bcl-2 and the Hedgehog signaling pathway, and a recently discovered replication-competent picornavirus, have shown remarkable activity against SCLC in preclinical models and are currently in simultaneous phase I clinical development. Novel therapeutic approaches based on advances in understanding of the biology of SCLC have the potential to radically change the outlook for patients with this disease.

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Alexander S. Baras, Jarushka Naidoo, Christine L. Hann, Peter B. Illei, Charles W. Reninger III and Josh Lauring

Tumor DNA sequencing can identify rare driver genomic alterations that suggest targets for cancer therapy, even when these drivers cannot be suspected on clinical grounds. In some cases, genomic alterations identified in the tumor can lead to a change in diagnosis with implications for prognosis and therapy. This report describes a case in which evaluation of tumor sequencing results by a molecular tumor board (MTB) led to rediagnosis of a non–small cell lung cancer as highly aggressive NUT midline carcinoma, with implications for targeted therapy using an investigational bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) inhibitor. We discuss the molecular biology and diagnosis of this rare tumor, and suggest how improved annotation of tumor sequencing reports and multidisciplinary expertise of MTBs can facilitate timely diagnosis of rare tumors and application of potential targeted therapies.

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Gregory P. Kalemkerian, Billy W. Loo Jr, Wallace Akerley, Albert Attia, Michael Bassetti, Yanis Boumber, Roy Decker, M. Chris Dobelbower, Afshin Dowlati, Robert J. Downey, Charles Florsheim, Apar Kishor P. Ganti, John C. Grecula, Matthew A. Gubens, Christine L. Hann, James A. Hayman, Rebecca Suk Heist, Marianna Koczywas, Robert E. Merritt, Nisha Mohindra, Julian Molina, Cesar A. Moran, Daniel Morgensztern, Saraswati Pokharel, David C. Portnoy, Deborah Rhodes, Chad Rusthoven, Jacob Sands, Rafael Santana-Davila, Charles C. Williams Jr, Karin G. Hoffmann and Miranda Hughes

The NCCN Guidelines for Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC) address all aspects of disease management. These NCCN Guidelines Insights focus on recent updates to the NCCN Guidelines for SCLC regarding immunotherapy, systemic therapy, and radiation therapy. For the 2018 update, new sections were added on “Signs and Symptoms of SCLC” and “Principles of Pathologic Review.”