Background: Management of metastatic (M1) nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) is controversial; data suggest high overall survival (OS) rates with definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Herein, we evaluated OS in patients with M1 NPC undergoing chemotherapy alone versus CRT. Methods: The National Cancer Data Base was queried for M1 NPC cases. Patients undergoing no/unknown chemotherapy and/or with unknown/nondefinitive radiotherapy (RT) doses (<60 Gy) were excluded. Logistic regression analysis ascertained clinical factors associated with RT administration. Kaplan-Meier analysis evaluated OS between both cohorts; Cox proportional hazards modeling assessed factors associated with OS. Survival was then evaluated between matched populations using inverse-probability–weighted regression adjustment. OS between groups was also measured in patients surviving ≥1 and ≥3 years to address bias from poor-prognostic subsets (eg, widely disseminated disease), and those receiving CRT ≤30 and ≤60 days of each other (surrogates for concurrent CRT) versus >30 and >60 days (sequential) of each other. Results: Of 555 patients, 296 (53%) received chemotherapy alone and 259 (47%) underwent CRT. Patients undergoing CRT more often had private insurance (P=.001) and lived in areas with higher education levels (P=.028). Median OS in the chemotherapy-only and CRT cohorts were 13.7 and 25.8 months, respectively (P<.001); differences persisted between matched populations (P<.001). On multivariate analysis, receipt of additional RT independently predicted for improved OS (P<.001). OS differences between cohorts remained apparent when evaluating patients surviving for ≥1 (P<.001) and ≥3 (P=.002) years. Patients who received concurrent or sequential CRT displayed improved OS over those receiving chemotherapy alone, for both the 30-day (P<.001) and 60-day cutoffs (P<.001). Conclusions: Patients with M1 NPC undergoing definitive RT and chemotherapy experienced higher survival than those receiving chemotherapy alone. Risk stratification and patient selection for such combined modality interventions is critical.
Vivek Verma, Pamela K. Allen, Charles B. Simone II, Hiram A. Gay and Steven H. Lin
Vivek Verma, Swati M. Surkar, Eric D. Brooks, Charles B. Simone II and Chi Lin
Purpose: Current guidelines recommend chemotherapy (CT) with or without radiotherapy for unresected nonmetastatic gallbladder cancer (GC), with little consensus. However, several small-volume, single-institution studies have documented the efficacy of local therapy for this population. This is the largest study to date evaluating outcomes of chemoradiotherapy (CRT) versus CT alone in unresected nonmetastatic GC. Methods: The National Cancer Database was queried for primary GC cases (2004–2013) receiving CT alone or CRT. Patients receiving resection or lack of CT were excluded, as were those with metastatic disease or unknown M classification. Logistic regression analysis ascertained factors associated with CRT delivery. Kaplan-Meier analysis evaluated overall survival (OS) between both cohorts. Cox proportional hazards modeling determined variables associated with OS. Results: In total, 1,199 patients were analyzed (CRT: n=327, 27%; CT: n=872, 73%). Groups were evenly balanced, with no factor on multivariate logistic regression analysis statistically predicting for receipt of a particular paradigm. Median OS in the CRT and CT groups was 12.9 versus 7.8 months, respectively (P=.001). On multivariate analysis, OS was associated with age and years of treatment (P=.001 each). Notably, receipt of CRT independently predicted for improved OS (P=.001). Conclusions: CRT, compared with CT alone, was independently associated with improved survival in unresected nonmetastatic GC. Although causation is not implied, these results support the necessity for prospective CRT evaluation.