Background: Inherited BRCA gene mutations (pathogenic variants) cause 10% of breast cancers. BRCA pathogenic variants predispose carriers to triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC); around 30% of patients with TNBC carry BRCA pathogenic variants. The 2018 NCCN Guidelines for Genetic/Familial High-Risk Assessment: Breast and Ovarian recommend genetic counseling referrals for patients with TNBC diagnosed at age ≤60 years. This study sought to describe genetic counseling referral patterns among long-term TNBC survivors at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. Methods: This single-institution retrospective analysis of female long-term (disease-free for ≥5 years) TNBC survivors sought to determine the rate of genetic counseling referral among patients diagnosed at age ≤60 years between 1992 and 2008. Patients who underwent treatment and surveillance visits at our institution and were followed until 2017 were included. We collected BRCA pathogenic variant status among tested patients. Descriptive statistical methods and a univariate analysis were used to identify patient characteristics associated with genetic counseling referral. Results: We identified 646 female long-term TNBC survivors with a median age at diagnosis of 47 years. Of these, 245 (38%) received a recommendation for a genetic counseling referral. Among those referred, 156 (64%) underwent genetic testing, and 35% of those tested had BRCA pathogenic variants. Interestingly, among those referred, 20% declined genetic testing. The rate of genetic referrals improved over time, from 25% among TNBC survivors whose last surveillance visit was between 2011 and 2013 to 100% among those whose last surveillance visit was between 2014 or later. Younger age and premenopausal status at diagnosis and a family history of breast or ovarian cancer were associated with an increased rate of referral for genetic counseling. Conclusions: Among long-term TNBC survivors, the rate of referral to genetic counseling increased over time, and among those tested, 35% carried a BRCA pathogenic variant. Survivorship care provides an excellent opportunity to refer eligible patients for genetic counseling.
Genetic Counseling Referral Rates in Long-Term Survivors of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer
Carlos H. Barcenas, Maryam N. Shafaee, Arup K. Sinha, Akshara Raghavendra, Babita Saigal, Rashmi K. Murthy, Ashley H. Woodson, and Banu Arun
Evaluating the NCCN Clinical Criteria for Recommending BRCA1 and BRCA2 Genetic Testing in Patients With Breast Cancer
Caiqian Cropper, Ashley Woodson, Banu Arun, Carlos Barcenas, Jennifer Litton, Sarah Noblin, Diane Liu, Minjeong Park, and Molly Daniels
Background: Mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes predispose individuals to a significantly elevated risk for breast and ovarian cancers. Identification of these individuals allows for proper screening, management, and testing of at-risk relatives. NCCN has established clinical criteria for recommending BRCA1/2 testing. Patients and Methods: A retrospective chart review of 1,123 patients with breast cancer was performed to evaluate the positive predictive values (PPVs) of 14 individual criteria for predicting BRCA1/2 mutations. Results: Two criteria had PPVs significantly below 10%. Only 2 of 115 patients who were recommended for testing based solely on the criterion of “diagnosed with breast cancer at ≤45 years of age” had pathogenic mutations at a PPV of 1.6% (95% CI, 0.2%–6.0%). Additionally, 0 of 37 individuals who underwent testing based on the criterion, “diagnosed with breast cancer at any age with ≥2 close blood relatives with breast cancer at any age” tested positive (95% CI, 0%–9%). Overall, meeting >1 criterion has a PPV of 12%, whereas meeting only 1 criterion has a PPV of 3.2% (95% CI, 1.6%–5.7%), significantly below 10% (P<.0001) for predicting BRCA1/2 positivity. Conclusions: Patients with breast cancer meeting >1 criterion constitute a population significantly enriched for BRCA1/2 mutations, whereas those meeting only 1 criterion test positive at a rate similar to unselected patients with breast cancer. These data will inform ongoing discussions regarding how to best implement BRCA1/2 genetic testing.
Sociodemographic Factors Associated With Rapid Relapse in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: A Multi-Institution Study
Sarah Asad, Carlos H. Barcenas, Richard J. Bleicher, Adam L. Cohen, Sara H. Javid, Ellis G. Levine, Nancy U. Lin, Beverly Moy, Joyce Niland, Antonio C. Wolff, Michael J. Hassett, and Daniel G. Stover
Background: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) accounts for disproportionately poor outcomes in breast cancer, driven by a subset of rapid-relapse TNBC (rrTNBC) with marked chemoresistance, rapid metastatic spread, and poor survival. Our objective was to evaluate clinicopathologic and sociodemographic features associated with rrTNBC. Methods: We included patients diagnosed with stage I–III TNBC in 1996 through 2012 who received chemotherapy at 1 of 10 academic cancer centers. rrTNBC was defined as a distant metastatic recurrence event or death ≤24 months after diagnosis. Features associated with rrTNBC were included in a multivariable logistic model upon which backward elimination was performed with a P<.10 criterion, with a final multivariable model applied to training (70%) and independent validation (30%) cohorts. Results: Among all patients with breast cancer treated at these centers, 3,016 fit the inclusion criteria. Training cohort (n=2,112) bivariable analyses identified disease stage, insurance type, age, body mass index, race, and income as being associated with rrTNBC (P<.10). In the final multivariable model, rrTNBC was significantly associated with higher disease stage (adjusted odds ratio for stage III vs I, 16.0; 95% CI, 9.8–26.2; P<.0001), Medicaid/indigent insurance, lower income (by 2000 US Census tract), and younger age at diagnosis. Model performance was consistent between the training and validation cohorts. In sensitivity analyses, insurance type, low income, and young age were associated with rrTNBC among patients with stage I/II but not stage III disease. When comparing rrTNBC versus late relapse (>24 months), we found that insurance type and young age remained significant. Conclusions: Timing of relapse in TNBC is associated with stage of disease and distinct sociodemographic features, including insurance type, income, and age at diagnosis.