Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is characterized by the fusion of retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARA) with promyelocytic leukemia (PML) or, rarely, other gene partners. This report presents a patient with APL with a novel fusion between RARA and the interferon regulatory factor 2 binding protein 2 (IRF2BP2) genes. A bone marrow examination in a 19-year-old woman who presented with ecchymoses and epistaxis showed morphologic and immunophenotypic features consistent with APL. PML oncogenic domain antibody was positive. Results of fluorescence in situ hybridization, conventional cytogenetics, reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and oligonucleotide microarray for PML-RARA and common APL variant translocations were negative. Next-generation RNA-sequencing analysis followed by RT-PCR and direct sequencing revealed distinct breakpoints within IRF2BP2 exon 2 and RARA intron 2. The patient received all-trans retinoic acid, arsenic, and gemtuzumab ozogamicin, and achieved complete remission. However, the disease relapsed 10 months later, 2 months after consolidation therapy. This is the first report showing involvement of IRF2BP2 in APL, and it expands the list of novel RARA partners identified in APL.
C. Cameron Yin, Nitin Jain, Meenakshi Mehrotra, Jianhua Zhagn, Alexei Protopopov, Zhuang Zuo, Naveen Pemmaraju, Courtney DiNardo, Cheryl Hirsch-Ginsberg, Sa A. Wang, L. Jeffrey Medeiros, Lynda Chin, Keyur P. Patel, Farhad Ravandi, Andrew Futreal, and Carlos E. Bueso-Ramos
Juliana E. Hidalgo Lopez, Mariko Yabe, Adrian A. Carballo-Zarate, Sa A. Wang, Jeffrey L. Jorgensen, Sairah Ahmed, John Lee, Shaoying Li, Ellen Schlette, Timothy McDonnell, Roberto N. Miranda, L. Jeffrey Medeiros, Carlos E. Bueso-Ramos, and C. Cameron Yin
T-cell large granular lymphocytic (T-LGL) leukemia after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT) is rare and its natural history and clinical outcome have not been well described. We report the clinical, morphologic, immunophenotypic, and molecular features of a case of donor-derived T-LGL leukemia in a 16-year-old man who received allogeneic SCT for peripheral T-cell lymphoma not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS). The patient presented with persistent neutropenia and splenomegaly 9 months after SCT when the chimerism study showed a 100% donor pattern. A splenectomy revealed T-LGL leukemia. Flow cytometric analysis showed an aberrant T-cell population positive for CD3, CD5 (dim, subset), CD7, CD8, CD16 (subset), CD57, CD94 (dim, partial), and T-cell receptor (TCR) αβ, and negative for CD4, CD26, CD56, and TCRγδ. Molecular studies showed monoclonal TCRβ and TCRγ gene rearrangements. Both the immunophenotype and molecular profile of the T-LGL leukemia were different from the pre-SCT PTCL. Sequencing analysis for STAT3 exon 21 did not reveal any mutation in both pre-SCT and post-SCT specimens. The patient did not receive any treatment for T-LGL leukemia; however, his count progressively increased after splenectomy, despite the presence of persistent T-LGL leukemia in the bone marrow. There was no evidence of recurrent PTCL. We propose an algorithm to diagnose this rare post-SCT neoplasm.
Juliana E. Hidalgo-López, Rashmi Kanagal-Shamanna, L. Jeffrey Medeiros, Zeev Estrov, C. Cameron Yin, Srdan Verstovsek, Sergej Konoplev, Jeffrey L. Jorgensen, Mohammad M. Mohammad, Roberto N. Miranda, Chong Zhao, John Lee, Zhuang Zuo, and Carlos E. Bueso-Ramos
Background: JAK2 V617F mutation (mut) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is rare. We describe the clinicopathologic findings of a single-institution series of 11 de novo AML cases with JAK2 V617. Methods: We identified cases of de novo AML with JAK2 V617F over a 10-year period. We reviewed diagnostic peripheral blood and bone marrow (BM) morphologic, cytogenetic, and molecular studies, including next-generation sequencing. The control group consisted of 12 patients with JAK2 wild-type (wt) AML matched for age, sex, and diagnosis. Results: We identified 11 patients (0.5%) with JAK2 V617F, with a median age at diagnosis of 72.5 years (range, 36–90 years). Ten neoplasms were classified as AML with myelodysplasia-related changes and 1 as AML with t(8;21)(q22;q22). All JAK2mut AML cases showed at least bilineage dysplasia, 7 of 11 showed fibrosis, 8 of 11 had an abnormal karyotype, and 5 had deletions or monosomy of chromosomes 5 and 7. Using the European LeukemiaNet (ELN) classification, 9 patients (82%) with JAK2mut AML were intermediate-2 and adverse risk. Cases of JAK2mut AML did not have mutations in other activating signaling pathways (P=.013); 7 (64%) showed additional mutations in at least one gene involving DNA methylation and/or epigenetic modification. Patients with JAK2mut AML had a significantly higher median BM granulocyte percentage (12% vs 3.5%; P=.006) and a higher frequency of ELN intermediate-2 and adverse risk cytogenetics (P=.04) compared with those with JAK2wt AML. JAK2mut AML showed higher circulating blasts, but this difference was not significant (17% vs 5.5%; P=not significant). No difference was seen in the median overall survival rate of patients with JAK2mut AML versus those with JAK2wt AML (14 vs 13.5 months, respectively). Conclusions: De novo JAK2mut AML is rare and frequently found in patients with dysplasia, BM fibrosis, and abnormal karyotype with intermediate- or high-risk features; gene mutations in DNA methylation and epigenetic-modifying pathways; and absence of gene mutations in activating signaling pathways.