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James Mohler, Robert R. Bahnson, Barry Boston, J. Erik Busby, Anthony D'Amico, James A. Eastham, Charles A. Enke, Daniel George, Eric Mark Horwitz, Robert P. Huben, Philip Kantoff, Mark Kawachi, Michael Kuettel, Paul H. Lange, Gary MacVicar, Elizabeth R. Plimack, Julio M. Pow-Sang, Mack Roach III, Eric Rohren, Bruce J. Roth, Dennis C. Shrieve, Matthew R. Smith, Sandy Srinivas, Przemyslaw Twardowski and Patrick C. Walsh

In the late 1980s and early 1990s, the number of newly diagnosed prostate cancers in the United States increased dramatically, surpassing lung cancer as the most common cancer in men.1 Experts generally believe that these changes resulted from prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening that detected many early-stage prostate cancers. For example, the percentage of patients with low-risk disease has increased (45.3% in 1999–2001 vs. 29.8% in 1989–1992; P < .0001).2 The incidence of prostate cancer increased 2.0% annually from 1995 to 2001 and has since declined. In 2009, an estimated 192,280 new cases were diagnosed and prostate cancer was expected to account for 25% of new cancer cases in men.1 Fortunately, the age-adjusted death rates from prostate cancer have also declined (–4.1% annually from 1994 to 2001).1 Researchers expect prostate cancer to account for 27,360 deaths in 2009.1 This comparatively low death rate suggests that, unless prostate cancer is becoming biologically less aggressive, increased public awareness with earlier detection and treatment of prostate cancer has begun to affect mortality from this prevalent cancer. However, early detection and treatment of prostate cancers that do not threaten life expectancy cause unnecessary side effects that impair quality of life, increase health care expenses, and decrease the value of PSA and digital rectal examination (DRE) as early detection tests.3,4To properly identify and manage patients with prostate cancer or any other malignancy, physicians must have an in-depth understanding of the natural history and diagnostic, staging, and treatment options. To this end, every year the NCCN...