Family history is a key component of breast cancer risk assessment. Family history provides clues as to the likelihood of a hereditary breast cancer syndrome and the need for a cancer genetics referral and can be used in the setting of a breast cancer risk assessment model to estimate a woman's risk. Appropriate breast cancer screening and risk reduction management plans rely on an accurate assessment of a patient's family history. This article reviews the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Breast Cancer Risk Reduction and provides insight into the application of the guidelines in clinical practice.
Kaylene Ready and Banu Arun
Carlos H. Barcenas, Maryam N. Shafaee, Arup K. Sinha, Akshara Raghavendra, Babita Saigal, Rashmi K. Murthy, Ashley H. Woodson, and Banu Arun
Background: Inherited BRCA gene mutations (pathogenic variants) cause 10% of breast cancers. BRCA pathogenic variants predispose carriers to triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC); around 30% of patients with TNBC carry BRCA pathogenic variants. The 2018 NCCN Guidelines for Genetic/Familial High-Risk Assessment: Breast and Ovarian recommend genetic counseling referrals for patients with TNBC diagnosed at age ≤60 years. This study sought to describe genetic counseling referral patterns among long-term TNBC survivors at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. Methods: This single-institution retrospective analysis of female long-term (disease-free for ≥5 years) TNBC survivors sought to determine the rate of genetic counseling referral among patients diagnosed at age ≤60 years between 1992 and 2008. Patients who underwent treatment and surveillance visits at our institution and were followed until 2017 were included. We collected BRCA pathogenic variant status among tested patients. Descriptive statistical methods and a univariate analysis were used to identify patient characteristics associated with genetic counseling referral. Results: We identified 646 female long-term TNBC survivors with a median age at diagnosis of 47 years. Of these, 245 (38%) received a recommendation for a genetic counseling referral. Among those referred, 156 (64%) underwent genetic testing, and 35% of those tested had BRCA pathogenic variants. Interestingly, among those referred, 20% declined genetic testing. The rate of genetic referrals improved over time, from 25% among TNBC survivors whose last surveillance visit was between 2011 and 2013 to 100% among those whose last surveillance visit was between 2014 or later. Younger age and premenopausal status at diagnosis and a family history of breast or ovarian cancer were associated with an increased rate of referral for genetic counseling. Conclusions: Among long-term TNBC survivors, the rate of referral to genetic counseling increased over time, and among those tested, 35% carried a BRCA pathogenic variant. Survivorship care provides an excellent opportunity to refer eligible patients for genetic counseling.
Caiqian Cropper, Ashley Woodson, Banu Arun, Carlos Barcenas, Jennifer Litton, Sarah Noblin, Diane Liu, Minjeong Park, and Molly Daniels
Background: Mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes predispose individuals to a significantly elevated risk for breast and ovarian cancers. Identification of these individuals allows for proper screening, management, and testing of at-risk relatives. NCCN has established clinical criteria for recommending BRCA1/2 testing. Patients and Methods: A retrospective chart review of 1,123 patients with breast cancer was performed to evaluate the positive predictive values (PPVs) of 14 individual criteria for predicting BRCA1/2 mutations. Results: Two criteria had PPVs significantly below 10%. Only 2 of 115 patients who were recommended for testing based solely on the criterion of “diagnosed with breast cancer at ≤45 years of age” had pathogenic mutations at a PPV of 1.6% (95% CI, 0.2%–6.0%). Additionally, 0 of 37 individuals who underwent testing based on the criterion, “diagnosed with breast cancer at any age with ≥2 close blood relatives with breast cancer at any age” tested positive (95% CI, 0%–9%). Overall, meeting >1 criterion has a PPV of 12%, whereas meeting only 1 criterion has a PPV of 3.2% (95% CI, 1.6%–5.7%), significantly below 10% (P<.0001) for predicting BRCA1/2 positivity. Conclusions: Patients with breast cancer meeting >1 criterion constitute a population significantly enriched for BRCA1/2 mutations, whereas those meeting only 1 criterion test positive at a rate similar to unselected patients with breast cancer. These data will inform ongoing discussions regarding how to best implement BRCA1/2 genetic testing.
Therese B. Bevers, Deborah K. Armstrong, Banu Arun, Robert W. Carlson, Kenneth H. Cowan, Mary B. Daly, Irvin Fleming, Judy E. Garber, Mary Gemignani, William J. Gradishar, Helen Krontiras, Swati Kulkarni, Christine Laronga, Loretta Loftus, Deborah J. MacDonald, Martin C. Mahoney, Sofia D. Merajver, Ingrid Meszoely, Lisa Newman, Elizabeth Pritchard, Victoria Seewaldt, Rena V. Sellin, Charles L. Shapiro, and John H. Ward
Therese B. Bevers, John H. Ward, Banu K. Arun, Graham A. Colditz, Kenneth H. Cowan, Mary B. Daly, Judy E. Garber, Mary L. Gemignani, William J. Gradishar, Judith A. Jordan, Larissa A. Korde, Nicole Kounalakis, Helen Krontiras, Shicha Kumar, Allison Kurian, Christine Laronga, Rachel M. Layman, Loretta S. Loftus, Martin C. Mahoney, Sofia D. Merajver, Ingrid M. Meszoely, Joanne Mortimer, Lisa Newman, Elizabeth Pritchard, Sandhya Pruthi, Victoria Seewaldt, Michelle C. Specht, Kala Visvanathan, Anne Wallace, Mary Ann Bergman, and Rashmi Kumar
Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy in women in the United States and is second only to lung cancer as a cause of cancer death. To assist women who are at increased risk of developing breast cancer and their physicians in the application of individualized strategies to reduce breast cancer risk, NCCN has developed these guidelines for breast cancer risk reduction.