Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, aggressive neuroendocrine malignancy of the skin with an annual incidence in the United States of 0.34 and 0.17 per 100,000 men and women, respectively. MCC incidence increases with age, is higher among men and whites, and positively correlates with solar ultraviolet (UV) index, suggesting UV radiation exposure may play a role in the development of MCC. MCC incidence rates are also higher among severely immunosuppressed populations, including people who have undergone organ transplantation, have lymphoma, and are HIV-infected. Given the increased risk for MCC observed with immunosuppression and the established associations between viral infections and other cancers that occur more often in immunosuppressed populations, MCC was a prime cancer candidate for a viral cause. Subsequent investigation discovered a genome encompassing 5387 base pairs of a new polyomavirus, subsequently named the Merkel cell polyomavirus.
Dana E. Rollison, Anna R. Giuliano and Jürgen C. Becker
Edward E. Partridge, Nadeem Abu-Rustum, Anna Giuliano, Stewart Massad, Joan McClure, Mary Dwyer and Miranda Hughes
These NCCN Guidelines Insights focus on recent recommendations for cervical cancer screening and management of abnormal screening tests. When the NCCN Panel convened to update the NCCN Guidelines for Cervical Cancer Screening, they decided to adopt and endorse guidelines from other organizations to avoid duplication of effort. Therefore, in July 2013, after review and validation of consensus guidelines from the American Cancer Society, American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, and American Society for Clinical Pathology, the NCCN Guidelines for Cervical Cancer Screening were discontinued.