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  • Author: Amy E. Cyr x
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Barbara Dull, Andrew Linkugel, Julie A. Margenthaler and Amy E. Cyr

Background: The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) recommend that patients with clinical stage I/II breast cancer undergo advanced imaging for staging only when symptomatic. Regardless, many asymptomatic patients undergo chest CT. The goal of this study was to assess the use and results of chest CT in these patients at an NCCN Member Institution. Methods: Patients with breast cancer diagnosed between 1998 and 2012 were identified in a prospectively maintained database. All patients with clinical stage I/II disease who did not receive neoadjuvant chemotherapy were included. Data collected included demographics, tumor size, node status, chest CT within 6 months of diagnosis, imaging findings, need for additional workup, and identification of metastatic disease. Appropriate statistical tests were used for analysis. Results: From 1998 to 2012, 3,321 patients were diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer. Of these, 2,062 (62.1%) had clinical stage I breast cancer at diagnosis and 1,259 (37.9%) had stage II; 227 patients (11%) with stage I and 456 (36.2%) with stage II breast cancer received staging chest CT. Of patients undergoing CT, 184 (26.9%) were found to have pulmonary nodules, which measured ≤5 mm for 128 patients (69.6%), 5 to 10 mm for 46 patients (25.0%), 11 to 20 mm for 6 patients (3.2%), and ≥20 mm for 4 patients (2.2%). Patients undergoing chest CT for staging subsequently underwent a mean of 2.34 (range, 0–16) additional CTs in follow-up. Of all patients undergoing chest CT for staging, only 9 (1.3%) were ultimately diagnosed with pulmonary metastases at an average of 25 months (range, 0–97) after initial staging chest CT. Conclusions: A significant percentage of patients with stage I/II breast cancer underwent unnecessary chest CT as part of their initial workup. Nearly one-third of these patients were found to have pulmonary nodules, but only 1.3% were ever diagnosed with pulmonary metastases. Adherence to NCCN Guidelines will reduce the excessive use of CT chest imaging.

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Prashant Gabani, Emily Merfeld, Amar J. Srivastava, Ashley A. Weiner, Laura L. Ochoa, Dan Mullen, Maria A. Thomas, Julie A. Margenthaler, Amy E. Cyr, Lindsay L. Peterson, Michael J. Naughton, Cynthia Ma and Imran Zoberi

Background: This study evaluated factors predictive of locoregional recurrence (LRR) in women with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy who do not experience pathologic complete response (pCR). Methods: This is a single-institution retrospective review of women with TNBC treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy, surgery, and radiation therapy in 2000 through 2013. LRR was estimated between patients with and without pCR using the Kaplan-Meier method. Patient-, tumor-, and treatment-specific factors in patients without pCR were analyzed using the Cox proportional hazards method to evaluate factors predictive of LRR. Log-rank statistics were then used to compare LRR among these risk factors. Results: A total of 153 patients with a median follow-up of 48.6 months were included. The 4-year overall survival and LRR were 70% and 15%, respectively, and the 4-year LRR in patients with pCR was 0% versus 22.0% in those without (P<.001). In patients without pCR, lymphovascular space invasion (LVSI; hazard ratio, 3.92; 95% CI, 1.64–9.38; P=.002) and extranodal extension (ENE; hazard ratio, 3.32; 95% CI, 1.35–8.15; P=.009) were significant predictors of LRR in multivariable analysis. In these patients, the 4-year LRR with LVSI was 39.8% versus 15.0% without (P<.001). Similarly, the 4-year LRR was 48.1% with ENE versus 16.1% without (P=.002). In patients without pCR, the presence of both LVSI and ENE were associated with an even further increased risk of LRR compared with patients with either LVSI or ENE alone and those with neither LVSI nor ENE in the residual tumor (P<.001). Conclusions: In patients without pCR, the presence of LVSI and ENE increases the risk of LRR in TNBC. The risk of LRR is compounded when both LVSI and ENE are present in the same patient. Future clinical trials are warranted to lower the risk of LRR in these high-risk patients.

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William J. Gradishar, Benjamin O. Anderson, Ron Balassanian, Sarah L. Blair, Harold J. Burstein, Amy Cyr, Anthony D. Elias, William B. Farrar, Andres Forero, Sharon Hermes Giordano, Matthew P. Goetz, Lori J. Goldstein, Steven J. Isakoff, Janice Lyons, P. Kelly Marcom, Ingrid A. Mayer, Beryl McCormick, Meena S. Moran, Ruth M. O'Regan, Sameer A. Patel, Lori J. Pierce, Elizabeth C. Reed, Kilian E. Salerno, Lee S. Schwartzberg, Amy Sitapati, Karen Lisa Smith, Mary Lou Smith, Hatem Soliman, George Somlo, Melinda Telli, John H. Ward, Dorothy A. Shead and Rashmi Kumar

These NCCN Guidelines Insights highlight the important updates/changes to the surgical axillary staging, radiation therapy, and systemic therapy recommendations for hormone receptor–positive disease in the 1.2017 version of the NCCN Guidelines for Breast Cancer. This report summarizes these updates and discusses the rationale behind them. Updates on new drug approvals, not available at press time, can be found in the most recent version of these guidelines at NCCN.org.

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William J. Gradishar, Benjamin O. Anderson, Ron Balassanian, Sarah L. Blair, Harold J. Burstein, Amy Cyr, Anthony D. Elias, William B. Farrar, Andres Forero, Sharon H. Giordano, Matthew P. Goetz, Lori J. Goldstein, Steven J. Isakoff, Janice Lyons, P. Kelly Marcom, Ingrid A. Mayer, Beryl McCormick, Meena S. Moran, Ruth M. O'Regan, Sameer A. Patel, Lori J. Pierce, Elizabeth C. Reed, Kilian E. Salerno, Lee S. Schwartzberg, Amy Sitapati, Karen Lisa Smith, Mary Lou Smith, Hatem Soliman, George Somlo, Melinda L. Telli, John H. Ward, Rashmi Kumar and Dorothy A. Shead

Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast represents a heterogeneous group of neoplastic lesions in the breast ducts. The goal for management of DCIS is to prevent the development of invasive breast cancer. This manuscript focuses on the NCCN Guidelines Panel recommendations for the workup, primary treatment, risk reduction strategies, and surveillance specific to DCIS.

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William J. Gradishar, Benjamin O. Anderson, Sarah L. Blair, Harold J. Burstein, Amy Cyr, Anthony D. Elias, William B. Farrar, Andres Forero, Sharon Hermes Giordano, Lori J. Goldstein, Daniel F. Hayes, Clifford A. Hudis, Steven J. Isakoff, Britt-Marie E. Ljung, P. Kelly Marcom, Ingrid A. Mayer, Beryl McCormick, Robert S. Miller, Mark Pegram, Lori J. Pierce, Elizabeth C. Reed, Kilian E. Salerno, Lee S. Schwartzberg, Mary Lou Smith, Hatem Soliman, George Somlo, John H. Ward, Antonio C. Wolff, Richard Zellars, Dorothy A. Shead and Rashmi Kumar

Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women in the United States and is second only to lung cancer as a cause of cancer death. The overall management of breast cancer includes the treatment of local disease with surgery, radiation therapy, or both, and the treatment of systemic disease with cytotoxic chemotherapy, endocrine therapy, biologic therapy, or combinations of these. The NCCN Guidelines specific to management of large clinical stage II and III tumors are discussed in this article. These guidelines are the work of the members of the NCCN Breast Cancer Panel. Expert medical clinical judgment is required to apply these guidelines in the context of an individual patient to provide optimal care. Although not stated at every decision point of the guidelines, patient participation in prospective clinical trials is the preferred option of treatment for all stages of breast cancer.

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William J. Gradishar, Benjamin O. Anderson, Ron Balassanian, Sarah L. Blair, Harold J. Burstein, Amy Cyr, Anthony D. Elias, William B. Farrar, Andres Forero, Sharon Hermes Giordano, Matthew Goetz, Lori J. Goldstein, Clifford A. Hudis, Steven J. Isakoff, P. Kelly Marcom, Ingrid A. Mayer, Beryl McCormick, Meena Moran, Sameer A. Patel, Lori J. Pierce, Elizabeth C. Reed, Kilian E. Salerno, Lee S. Schwartzberg, Karen Lisa Smith, Mary Lou Smith, Hatem Soliman, George Somlo, Melinda Telli, John H. Ward, Dorothy A. Shead and Rashmi Kumar

Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women in the United States and is second only to lung cancer as a cause of cancer death. The overall management of breast cancer includes the treatment of local disease with surgery, radiation therapy, or both, and the treatment of systemic disease with cytotoxic chemotherapy, endocrine therapy, biologic therapy, or combinations of these. This article outlines the NCCN Guidelines specific to breast cancer that is locoregional (restricted to one region of the body), and discusses the management of clinical stage I, II, and IIIA (T3N1M0) tumors. For NCCN Guidelines on systemic adjuvant therapy after locoregional management of clinical stage I, II and IIIA (T3N1M0) and for management for other clinical stages of breast cancer, see the complete version of these guidelines at NCCN.org.

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William J. Gradishar, Benjamin O. Anderson, Ron Balassanian, Sarah L. Blair, Harold J. Burstein, Amy Cyr, Anthony D. Elias, William B. Farrar, Andres Forero, Sharon Hermes Giordano, Matthew Goetz, Lori J. Goldstein, Clifford A. Hudis, Steven J. Isakoff, P. Kelly Marcom, Ingrid A. Mayer, Beryl McCormick, Meena Moran, Sameer A. Patel, Lori J. Pierce, Elizabeth C. Reed, Kilian E. Salerno, Lee S. Schwartzberg, Karen Lisa Smith, Mary Lou Smith, Hatem Soliman, George Somlo, Melinda Telli, John H. Ward, Dorothy A. Shead and Rashmi Kumar

Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women in the United States and is second only to lung cancer as a cause of cancer death. The overall management of breast cancer includes the treatment of local disease with surgery, radiation therapy, or both, and the treatment of systemic disease with cytotoxic chemotherapy, endocrine therapy, biologic therapy, or combinations of these. This portion of the NCCN Guidelines discusses recommendations specific to the locoregional management of clinical stage I, II, and IIIA (T3N1M0) tumors.

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William J. Gradishar, Benjamin O. Anderson, Ron Balassanian, Sarah L. Blair, Harold J. Burstein, Amy Cyr, Anthony D. Elias, William B. Farrar, Andres Forero, Sharon Hermes Giordano, Matthew Goetz, Lori J. Goldstein, Clifford A. Hudis, Steven J. Isakoff, P. Kelly Marcom, Ingrid A. Mayer, Beryl McCormick, Meena Moran, Sameer A. Patel, Lori J. Pierce, Elizabeth C. Reed, Kilian E. Salerno, Lee S. Schwartzberg, Karen Lisa Smith, Mary Lou Smith, Hatem Soliman, George Somlo, Melinda Telli, John H. Ward, Dottie A. Shead and Rashmi Kumar

These NCCN Guideline Insights highlight the important updates to the systemic therapy recommendations in the 2016 NCCN Guidelines for Breast Cancer. In the most recent version of these guidelines, the NCCN Breast Cancer Panel included a new section on the principles of preoperative systemic therapy. In addition, based on new evidence, the panel updated systemic therapy recommendations for women with hormone receptor–positive breast cancer in the adjuvant and metastatic disease settings and for patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer. This report summarizes these recent updates and discusses the rationale behind them.