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Jeffrey S. Montgomery, David C. Miller and Alon Z. Weizer

Bladder cancer is predominantly seen in elderly patients. With the aging United States population, the incidence and prevalence of bladder cancer are on the rise, heightening the relevance of this disease as a public health issue. Despite having one of the greatest average cancer treatment costs per patient, improvements in disease-specific survival have been subtle. Clinical guidelines based predominantly on expert opinion and randomized controlled studies offer some guidance, but adherence to these guidelines is lacking. Building awareness of quality indicators to optimize patient care represents an opportunity to improve bladder cancer outcomes. Although quality indicators exist for other disease states, widely accepted quality indicators for the management of bladder cancer have not yet been established. This article proposes an initial set of quality indicators for both non–muscle-invasive and muscle-invasive bladder cancer based on established clinical guidelines and the available literature.