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Alison M. Lake and William W. Roberts

Upper tract transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) accounts for approximately 5% of urothelial tumors. Surgical therapy for upper tract TCC is based on tumor grade, stage, location, and confounding factors of individual cases. Options for treatment range from minimally invasive procedures, such as ureteroscopy, to open nephroureterectomy. Laparoscopic nephroureterectomy is progressively eclipsing open nephroureterectomy in the surgical management of upper tract TCC. This article discusses the surgical options for managing upper tract TCC and their considerations for use.