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Updates in the Management of Newly Diagnosed Acute Myeloid Leukemia

Presented by: Alice S. Mims

For patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who are candidates for intensive induction regimens, all therapies include anthracycline- and cytarabine-based backbones. Core-binding factor AML is typically treated with gemtuzumab ozogamicin and 7 + 3 chemotherapy. Patients with FLT3-mutated (ITD or TKD) disease should have midostaurin + 7 + 3 and consolidation, and those with secondary or therapy-related AML should be considered for CPX-351. For patients ineligible for intensive induction regimens, venetoclax has changed the game and should be used in combination with hypomethylating agents or cytarabine. Glasdegib is also approved in combination with low-dose cytarabine. Patients with IDH1/2-mutated disease can be treated with ivosidenib and enasidenib, respectively. Although enasidenib has yet to secure its spot in the up-front setting, data support its use in newly diagnosed AML. An ongoing question in the field concerns how to treat patients with TP53-mutated AML, because most patients do not respond well to currently available therapies and continue to have poor overall outcomes.

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Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Version 3.2019, NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology

Martin S. Tallman, Eunice S. Wang, Jessica K. Altman, Frederick R. Appelbaum, Vijaya Raj Bhatt, Dale Bixby, Steven E. Coutre, Marcos De Lima, Amir T. Fathi, Melanie Fiorella, James M. Foran, Aric C. Hall, Meagan Jacoby, Jeffrey Lancet, Thomas W. LeBlanc, Gabriel Mannis, Guido Marcucci, Michael G. Martin, Alice Mims, Margaret R. O’Donnell, Rebecca Olin, Deniz Peker, Alexander Perl, Daniel A. Pollyea, Keith Pratz, Thomas Prebet, Farhad Ravandi, Paul J. Shami, Richard M. Stone, Stephen A. Strickland, Matthew Wieduwilt, Kristina M. Gregory, OCN, Lydia Hammond, and Ndiya Ogba

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most common form of acute leukemia among adults and accounts for the largest number of annual deaths due to leukemias in the United States. Recent advances have resulted in an expansion of treatment options for AML, especially concerning targeted therapies and low-intensity regimens. This portion of the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for AML focuses on the management of AML and provides recommendations on the workup, diagnostic evaluation and treatment options for younger (age <60 years) and older (age ≥60 years) adult patients.

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Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Version 3.2023, NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology

Daniel A. Pollyea, Jessica K. Altman, Rita Assi, Dale Bixby, Amir T. Fathi, James M. Foran, Ivana Gojo, Aric C. Hall, Brian A. Jonas, Ashwin Kishtagari, Jeffrey Lancet, Lori Maness, James Mangan, Gabriel Mannis, Guido Marcucci, Alice Mims, Kelsey Moriarty, Moaath Mustafa Ali, Jadee Neff, Reza Nejati, Rebecca Olin, Mary-Elizabeth Percival, Alexander Perl, Amanda Przespolewski, Dinesh Rao, Farhad Ravandi, Rory Shallis, Paul J. Shami, Eytan Stein, Richard M. Stone, Kendra Sweet, Swapna Thota, Geoffrey Uy, Pankit Vachhani, Carly J. Cassara, Deborah A. Freedman-Cass, and Katie Stehman

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous hematologic malignancy characterized by the clonal expansion of myeloid blasts in the peripheral blood, bone marrow, and/or other tissues. It is the most common form of acute leukemia among adults and accounts for the largest number of annual deaths from leukemias in the United States. Like AML, blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is a myeloid malignancy. It is a rare malignancy characterized by the aggressive proliferation of precursors of plasmacytoid dendritic cells that frequently involves the bone marrow, skin, central nervous system, and other organs and tissues. This discussion section focuses on the diagnosis and management of BPDCN as outlined in the NCCN Guidelines for AML.

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NCCN Guidelines Insights: Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Version 2.2021

Featured Updates to the NCCN Guidelines

Daniel A. Pollyea, Dale Bixby, Alexander Perl, Vijaya Raj Bhatt, Jessica K. Altman, Frederick R. Appelbaum, Marcos de Lima, Amir T. Fathi, James M. Foran, Ivana Gojo, Aric C. Hall, Meagan Jacoby, Jeffrey Lancet, Gabriel Mannis, Guido Marcucci, Michael G. Martin, Alice Mims, Jadee Neff, Reza Nejati, Rebecca Olin, Mary-Elizabeth Percival, Thomas Prebet, Amanda Przespolewski, Dinesh Rao, Farhad Ravandi-Kashani, Paul J. Shami, Richard M. Stone, Stephen A. Strickland, Kendra Sweet, Pankit Vachhani, Matthew Wieduwilt, Kristina M. Gregory, Ndiya Ogba, and Martin S. Tallman

The NCCN Guidelines for Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) provide recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of adults with AML based on clinical trials that have led to significant improvements in treatment, or have yielded new information regarding factors with prognostic importance, and are intended to aid physicians with clinical decision-making. These NCCN Guidelines Insights focus on recent select updates to the NCCN Guidelines, including familial genetic alterations in AML, postinduction or postremission treatment strategies in low-risk acute promyelocytic leukemia or favorable-risk AML, principles surrounding the use of venetoclax-based therapies, and considerations for patients who prefer not to receive blood transfusions during treatment.