Background: The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) Guidelines recently recognized total neoadjuvant therapy (TNT) as an acceptable option in patients with T3 and any N rectal cancer. Previous studies suggested that patients who received chemotherapy prior to conventional preoperative chemoradiation (CRT) and surgery allowed patients to receive more of their planned treatment with a better toxicity profile and increase in pathological response. However, those studies used a long course of FOLFOX or used capecitabine and oxaliplatin as an induction regimen. We are conducting a phase 2 prospective clinical trial to evaluate the use of 6 cycles of FOLFOX as TNT in patients with T2-T3/N0-N+. Patients and Methods: Patients with T2-T3/N0-N+ enrolled on our phase 2 prospective trial were included for this analysis. Patients received 6 cycles of FOLFOX (infusional fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin), which was administered every 2 weeks. After 3 weeks of recovery period, patients then received conventional CRT with 5FU or capecitabine. All patients got MRI and endorectal ultrasound (ERUS) at baseline, after completing FOLFOX 3-months regimen and after finishing conventional CRT. Patients underwent either full-thickness local excision or total mesorectal resection depending on their tumor response to neoadjuvant therapy. The time interval between completion of radiation therapy and surgery ranged between 7and 12 weeks. Results: A total of 10 patients completed the chemotherapy and CRT treatment regimen. 9 patients proceeded to surgery and the 10th patient is scheduled for surgery. Clinical downstaging by MRI or ERUS was shown in 9 of 10 patients with only 6 cycles of FOLFOX. Complete clinical response was achieved in 6 patients as evident by ERUS/MRI of the pelvis after 3 months of FOLFOX before CRT. Complete pathological response was found in 4 of 9 patients (44%). In addition, 4 other patients had significant albeit not complete pathological response. Conclusions: This study suggests that adding only 6 cycles of neoadjuvant FOLFOX before CRT improved clinical and pathological downstaging of T2-T3/N0-N+ rectal adenocarcinoma and may facilitate organ preservation surgery. This is strategy needs to be investigated in larger phase III trials to validate these findings.
Ahmed Abdalla, Amr Aref, Amer Alame, Mohamad Barawi, Danny Ma and Zyad Kafri
Tarek Haykal, Babikir Kheiri, Varun Samji, Yazan Zayed, Ragheed Al-Dulaimi, Inderdeep Gakhal, Areeg Bala, Jason Sotzen, Ahmed Abdalla and Ghassan Bachuwa
Background: Metastatic clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is largely incurable, and its treatment remains challenging. Sunitinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is one of the current standard-of-care options for treatment-naïve patients with metastatic RCC. Despite the proven efficacy of sunitinib, prolonged treatment with some tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) has been associated with significant adverse events (AEs). Therefore, we aimed to calculate the exact prevalence of all sunitinib-related AEs in a pooled analysis from all available randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Methods: A comprehensive electronic database search was conducted for all RCTs comparing the clinical outcomes and adverse events of sunitinib versus all other available treatments for treatment-naïve advanced/metastatic clear-cell renal cell carcinoma. We then calculated the pooled prevalence of the most common reported side effects of sunitinib. All statistical analyses were performed using R Statistical Software v3.4.0 (R Foundation, Vienna, Austria). Results: We included 8 RCTs, with a total of 4,106 patients. The mean age was 62, with 66.44% males. Any grade AEs were reported in 72% of patients with the following frequencies: fatigue, 44%; diarrhea, 38%; nausea, 31%; hand-foot syndrome, 30%; hypertension, 27%; dysgeusia, 25%; hypothyroidism, 25%; cconstipation, 20%; stomatitis, 20%; inflammation of the mucosa, 18%; dyspepsia, 16%; vomiting, 14%; rash, 12%; asthenia, 11%; and epistaxis, 10%. Grade 3 (severe) AEs were reported in 52% of patients with the following frequencies: hypertension, 9%; fatigue, 8%; hand-foot syndrome, 5%; asthenia, 5%; diarrhea, 4%; and inflammation of the mucosa, 2%. Laboratory abnormalities were also reported as follows: increased AST, 7%; increased lipase, 6%; neutropenia, 6%; thrombocytopenia, 6%; hypophosphatemia, 5%; lymphocytopenia, 5%; anemia, 4%; and leukopenia, 3%. Conclusion: Despite sunitinib being one of the current standard treatments for patients with metastatic/advanced clear-cell RCC, its safety profile is concerning, with a high prevalence of reported dangerous side effects. These findings underscore the importance of the emergence of newer drugs and treatment plans for patients with metastatic RCC, not only to achieve similar or better clinical outcomes but also to decrease the burden of adverse events.