As treatment paradigms improve and young women live longer after a breast cancer diagnosis, there is an increasing need to define the fertility-related problems that premenopausal women with breast cancer face, and, more importantly, to find solutions. This article discusses what is known regarding fertility risks associated with standard breast cancer treatment regimens and limitations of that information. We outline established and emerging techniques for fertility preservation, including recent developments surrounding the controversial utility of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists through chemotherapy, and review available data on the safety of pregnancy in breast cancer survivors. We highlight opportunities for further investigation, and contextualize fertility-related concerns in the modern treatment landscape. Above all, we stress the importance of this topic in a patient-centered approach to breast cancer care for young women.