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Risk Reduction Strategies for Ductal Carcinoma In Situ

Adam L. Cohen and John H. Ward

Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a premalignant condition that, if left untreated, may progress to invasive breast cancer. After lumpectomy, DCIS can recur, and about half of recurrences are invasive. In 4 randomized trials, radiation has been shown to decrease the local recurrence rate by about half, though it does not change survival. Based on the results of 3 randomized trials, tamoxifen probably decreases cancer recurrence by about 30%, particularly in young women. Low fat diets, weight loss, and physical activity decrease invasive breast cancer recurrence and may be recommended to certain women with DCIS. Prognostic factors include age, extent of DCIS, margin status, grade, and presence of necrosis, although how these affect adjuvant therapy is unclear. Research evaluating other drugs to reduce recurrence risk and on different ways of delivering radiation continues.

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Immune-Related Adverse Events Among COVID-19–Vaccinated Patients With Cancer Receiving Immune Checkpoint Blockade

Adam J. Widman, Bevin Cohen, Vivian Park, Tara McClure, Jedd Wolchok, and Mini Kamboj

Background: Whether COVID-19 vaccination and the associated immune response increases susceptibility to immune-related adverse events (irAEs) among patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibition (ICI) remains unknown. Short-term follow-up can assess the safety of concurrent administration of the vaccine and ICI treatment. Methods: We conducted an electronic health record analysis of a cohort of 408 patients with cancer receiving ICI therapy and who were vaccinated for COVID-19 between January 16 and March 27, 2021. Patients were seen in follow-up for 90 days from the day of the first dose in this single-institution tertiary care center. We evaluated the incidence of irAEs and the frequency of each event type and grade among patients who experienced an irAE. We also evaluated the incidence of irAEs in patients who began a new immunotherapy agent after vaccination. Results: Among 408 patients with cancer receiving ICI therapy (median age, 71 years; 217 [53%] male), administration of a COVID-19 mRNA vaccine within 90 days of ICI treatment was not associated with an increased incidence of irAEs. A total of 27 (7%) patients experienced a new irAE within the observation period. Among patients with previous irAEs from ICIs (n=54), 3 (6%) experienced a recurrent irAE, and of those initiating a new immunotherapy (n=52), 9 (17%) experienced an irAE. No excess risk of COVID-19 diagnosis was seen in this subset of patients receiving ICI therapy, and no breakthrough COVID-19 cases were seen after full COVID-19 vaccination. Conclusions: These findings should reassure providers that COVID-19 vaccination during ICI therapy is safe and efficacious.

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Multiple Myeloma

Kenneth C. Anderson, Melissa Alsina, William Bensinger, J. Sybil Biermann, Asher Chanan-Khan, Adam D. Cohen, Steven Devine, Benjamin Djulbegovic, Cristina Gasparetto, Carol Ann Huff, Madan Jagasia, Bruno C. Medeiros, Ruby Meredith, Noopur Raje, Jeffrey Schriber, Seema Singhal, George Somlo, Keith Stockerl-Goldstein, Guido Tricot, Julie M. Vose, Donna Weber, Joachim Yahalom, and Furhan Yunus

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Sociodemographic Factors Associated With Rapid Relapse in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: A Multi-Institution Study

Sarah Asad, Carlos H. Barcenas, Richard J. Bleicher, Adam L. Cohen, Sara H. Javid, Ellis G. Levine, Nancy U. Lin, Beverly Moy, Joyce Niland, Antonio C. Wolff, Michael J. Hassett, and Daniel G. Stover

Background: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) accounts for disproportionately poor outcomes in breast cancer, driven by a subset of rapid-relapse TNBC (rrTNBC) with marked chemoresistance, rapid metastatic spread, and poor survival. Our objective was to evaluate clinicopathologic and sociodemographic features associated with rrTNBC. Methods: We included patients diagnosed with stage I–III TNBC in 1996 through 2012 who received chemotherapy at 1 of 10 academic cancer centers. rrTNBC was defined as a distant metastatic recurrence event or death ≤24 months after diagnosis. Features associated with rrTNBC were included in a multivariable logistic model upon which backward elimination was performed with a P<.10 criterion, with a final multivariable model applied to training (70%) and independent validation (30%) cohorts. Results: Among all patients with breast cancer treated at these centers, 3,016 fit the inclusion criteria. Training cohort (n=2,112) bivariable analyses identified disease stage, insurance type, age, body mass index, race, and income as being associated with rrTNBC (P<.10). In the final multivariable model, rrTNBC was significantly associated with higher disease stage (adjusted odds ratio for stage III vs I, 16.0; 95% CI, 9.8–26.2; P<.0001), Medicaid/indigent insurance, lower income (by 2000 US Census tract), and younger age at diagnosis. Model performance was consistent between the training and validation cohorts. In sensitivity analyses, insurance type, low income, and young age were associated with rrTNBC among patients with stage I/II but not stage III disease. When comparing rrTNBC versus late relapse (>24 months), we found that insurance type and young age remained significant. Conclusions: Timing of relapse in TNBC is associated with stage of disease and distinct sociodemographic features, including insurance type, income, and age at diagnosis.

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CLO22-033: Clinicopathologic and Sociodemographic Factors Associated With Late Relapse Triple Negative Breast Cancer

Adith S. Abraham, Carlos H. Barcenas, Richard J. Bleicher, Adam L. Cohen, Sara H. Javid, Ellis G. Levine, Nancy U. Lin, Beverly Moy, Joyce Niland, Antonio C. Wolff, Michael J. Hassett, Daniel G. Stover, and Sarah Asad

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Multiple Myeloma, Version 1.2013

Kenneth C. Anderson, Melissa Alsina, William Bensinger, J. Sybil Biermann, Adam D. Cohen, Steven Devine, Benjamin Djulbegovic, Edward A. Faber Jr, Cristina Gasparetto, Francisco Hernandez-Illizaliturri, Carol Ann Huff, Adetola Kassim, Amrita Y. Krishnan, Michael Liedtke, Ruby Meredith, Noopur Raje, Jeffrey Schriber, Seema Singhal, George Somlo, Keith Stockerl-Goldstein, Steven P. Treon, Donna Weber, Joachim Yahalom, Furhan Yunus, Dorothy A. Shead, and Rashmi Kumar

These NCCN Guidelines Insights highlight the important updates/changes specific to the management of relapsed or progressive disease in the 2013 version of the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology for Multiple Myeloma. These changes include the addition of new regimens as options for salvage therapy and strategies to mitigate the adverse effects and risks associated with newer regimens for the treatment of multiple myeloma.

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Cancer in People Living With HIV, Version 1.2018, NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology

Erin Reid, Gita Suneja, Richard F. Ambinder, Kevin Ard, Robert Baiocchi, Stefan K. Barta, Evie Carchman, Adam Cohen, Neel Gupta, Kimberly L. Johung, Ann Klopp, Ann S. LaCasce, Chi Lin, Oxana V. Makarova-Rusher, Amitkumar Mehta, Manoj P. Menon, David Morgan, Nitya Nathwani, Ariela Noy, Frank Palella, Lee Ratner, Stacey Rizza, Michelle A. Rudek, Jeff Taylor, Benjamin Tomlinson, Chia-Ching J. Wang, Mary A. Dwyer, and Deborah A. Freedman-Cass

People living with HIV (PLWH) are diagnosed with cancer at an increased rate over the general population and generally have a higher mortality due to delayed diagnoses, advanced cancer stage, comorbidities, immunosuppression, and cancer treatment disparities. Lack of guidelines and provider education has led to substandard cancer care being offered to PLWH. To fill that gap, the NCCN Guidelines for Cancer in PLWH were developed; they provide treatment recommendations for PLWH who develop non–small cell lung cancer, anal cancer, Hodgkin lymphoma, and cervical cancer. In addition, the NCCN Guidelines outline advice regarding HIV management during cancer therapy; drug–drug interactions between antiretroviral treatments and cancer therapies; and workup, radiation therapy, surgical management, and supportive care in PLWH who have cancer.

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Waldenström’s Macroglobulinemia/Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma, Version 2.2013

Kenneth C. Anderson, Melissa Alsina, William Bensinger, J. Sybil Biermann, Adam D. Cohen, Steven Devine, Benjamin Djulbegovic, Edward A. Faber Jr, Christine Gasparetto, Francisco Hernandez-Ilizaliturri, Carol Ann Huff, Adetola Kassim, Amrita Y. Krishnan, Bruno C. Medeiros, Ruby Meredith, Noopur Raje, Jeffrey Schriber, Seema Singhal, George Somlo, Keith Stockerl-Goldstein, Steven P. Treon, Guido Tricot, Donna M. Weber, Joachim Yahalom, Furhan Yunus, Rashmi Kumar, and Dorothy A. Shead

These NCCN Guidelines Insights highlight the important updates/changes specific to the management of Waldenström’s Macroglobulinemia/Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma. These include the addition of regimens containing novel agents as primary and salvage therapy options, inclusion of the updated summary of response categories and criteria from the sixth international workshop on Waldenström’s Macroglobulinemia, and a section on management of peripheral neuropathy in the accompanying discussion.

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Multiple Myeloma

Kenneth C. Anderson, Melissa Alsina, William Bensinger, J. Sybil Biermann, Asher Chanan-Khan, Adam D. Cohen, Steven Devine, Benjamin Djulbegovic, Edward A. Faber Jr., Cristina Gasparetto, Carol Ann Huff, Adetola Kassim, Bruno C. Medeiros, Ruby Meredith, Noopur Raje, Jeffrey Schriber, Seema Singhal, George Somlo, Keith Stockerl-Goldstein, Steven P. Treon, Guido Tricot, Donna M. Weber, Joachim Yahalom, and Furhan Yunus

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AIDS-Related Kaposi Sarcoma, Version 2.2019

Erin Reid, Gita Suneja, Richard F. Ambinder, Kevin Ard, Robert Baiocchi, Stefan K. Barta, Evie Carchman, Adam Cohen, Oxana V. Crysler, Neel Gupta, Chelsea Gustafson, Allison Hall, Kimberly L. Johung, Ann Klopp, Ann S. LaCasce, Chi Lin, Amitkumar Mehta, Manoj P. Menon, David Morgan, Nitya Nathwani, Ariela Noy, Lee Ratner, Stacey Rizza, Michelle A. Rudek, Julian Sanchez, Jeff Taylor, Benjamin Tomlinson, Chia-Ching J. Wang, Sai Yendamuri, Mary A. Dwyer, CGC, and Deborah A. Freedman-Cass

As treatment of HIV has improved, people living with HIV (PLWH) have experienced a decreased risk of AIDS and AIDS-defining cancers (non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, Kaposi sarcoma, and cervical cancer), but the risk of Kaposi sarcoma in PLWH is still elevated about 500-fold compared with the general population in the United States. The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for AIDS-Related Kaposi Sarcoma provide diagnosis, treatment, and surveillance recommendations for PLWH who develop limited cutaneous Kaposi sarcoma and for those with advanced cutaneous, oral, visceral, or nodal disease.