Surgical resection remains the mainstay of treatment for localized gastric adenocarcinoma. The type and extent of resection depends on tumor location. Although the incidence of gastric cancer has been declining, a shift has occurred to more tumors involving the proximal compared with the distal stomach. Appropriate treatment depends on a thorough staging process to exclude the presence of distant metastatic disease. Current staging modalities include high-quality CT scan, endoscopic ultrasound, PET, and laparoscopy. The value of peritoneal lavage to detect occult peritoneal disease is under investigation. The principles of surgical resection have always included negative resection margins and adequate lymph node examination. Controversial topics requiring further study include laparoscopic resections and hepatic metastasectomy. This review highlights the salient points of current surgical management of gastric adenocarcinoma.