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Quan P. Ly and Aaron R. Sasson

Surgical resection remains the mainstay of treatment for localized gastric adenocarcinoma. The type and extent of resection depends on tumor location. Although the incidence of gastric cancer has been declining, a shift has occurred to more tumors involving the proximal compared with the distal stomach. Appropriate treatment depends on a thorough staging process to exclude the presence of distant metastatic disease. Current staging modalities include high-quality CT scan, endoscopic ultrasound, PET, and laparoscopy. The value of peritoneal lavage to detect occult peritoneal disease is under investigation. The principles of surgical resection have always included negative resection margins and adequate lymph node examination. Controversial topics requiring further study include laparoscopic resections and hepatic metastasectomy. This review highlights the salient points of current surgical management of gastric adenocarcinoma.

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Margaret A. Tempero, J. Pablo Arnoletti, Stephen Behrman, Edgar Ben-Josef, Al B. Benson III, Jordan D. Berlin, John L. Cameron, Ephraim S. Casper, Steven J. Cohen, Michelle Duff, Joshua D.I. Ellenhorn, William G. Hawkins, John P. Hoffman, Boris W. Kuvshinoff II, Mokenge P. Malafa, Peter Muscarella II, Eric K. Nakakura, Aaron R. Sasson, Sarah P. Thayer, Douglas S. Tyler, Robert S. Warren, Samuel Whiting, Christopher Willett and Robert A. Wolff

Overview An estimated 36,800 people will die of pancreatic cancer in the United States in 2010.1 This disease is the fourth most common cause of cancer-related death among men and women in the United States.1 Its peak incidence occurs in the seventh and eighth decades of life. Although incidence is roughly equal for the sexes, African Americans seem to have a higher incidence of pancreatic cancer than white Americans.2 These guidelines only discuss tumors of the exocrine pancreas; neuroendocrine tumors are not included. By definition, these NCCN Guidelines cannot incorporate all possible clinical variations and are not intended to replace good clinical judgment or individualization of treatments. Exceptions to the rule were discussed among the panel members during development of these guidelines. A 5% rule (omitting clinical scenarios that constitute fewer than 5% of all cases) was used to eliminate uncommon clinical occurrences or conditions from these guidelines. The panel unanimously endorses participation in a clinical trial as the preferred option over standard or accepted therapy. Risk Factors and Genetic Predisposition Although the associated increase in risk is small, the development of pancreatic cancer is firmly linked to cigarette smoking.3–5 Some evidence shows that increased consumption of red meat and dairy products is associated with an elevation in pancreatic cancer risk,6 although other studies have failed to identify dietary risk factors.4 An increased body mass index is also associated with increased risk.7–9 Occupational exposure to chemicals, such as beta-naphthylamine and benzidine, is also associated with an increased risk of pancreatic...
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Jaffer A. Ajani, David J. Bentrem, Stephen Besh, Thomas A. D’Amico, Prajnan Das, Crystal Denlinger, Marwan G. Fakih, Charles S. Fuchs, Hans Gerdes, Robert E. Glasgow, James A. Hayman, Wayne L. Hofstetter, David H. Ilson, Rajesh N. Keswani, Lawrence R. Kleinberg, W. Michael Korn, A. Craig Lockhart, Kenneth Meredith, Mary F. Mulcahy, Mark B. Orringer, James A. Posey, Aaron R. Sasson, Walter J. Scott, Vivian E. Strong, Thomas K. Varghese Jr, Graham Warren, Mary Kay Washington, Christopher Willett, Cameron D. Wright, Nicole R. McMillian and Hema Sundar

The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology for Gastric Cancer provide evidence- and consensus-based recommendations for a multidisciplinary approach for the management of patients with gastric cancer. For patients with resectable locoregional cancer, the guidelines recommend gastrectomy with a D1+ or a modified D2 lymph node dissection (performed by experienced surgeons in high-volume centers). Postoperative chemoradiation is the preferred option after complete gastric resection for patients with T3-T4 tumors and node-positive T1-T2 tumors. Postoperative chemotherapy is included as an option after a modified D2 lymph node dissection for this group of patients. Trastuzumab with chemotherapy is recommended as first-line therapy for patients with HER2-positive advanced or metastatic cancer, confirmed by immunohistochemistry and, if needed, by fluorescence in situ hybridization for IHC 2+.

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Jaffer A. Ajani, Thomas A. D’Amico, Khaldoun Almhanna, David J. Bentrem, Stephen Besh, Joseph Chao, Prajnan Das, Crystal Denlinger, Paul Fanta, Charles S. Fuchs, Hans Gerdes, Robert E. Glasgow, James A. Hayman, Steven Hochwald, Wayne L. Hofstetter, David H. Ilson, Dawn Jaroszewski, Kory Jasperson, Rajesh N. Keswani, Lawrence R. Kleinberg, W. Michael Korn, Stephen Leong, A. Craig Lockhart, Mary F. Mulcahy, Mark B. Orringer, James A. Posey, George A. Poultsides, Aaron R. Sasson, Walter J. Scott, Vivian E. Strong, Thomas K. Varghese Jr, Mary Kay Washington, Christopher G. Willett, Cameron D. Wright, Debra Zelman, Nicole McMillian and Hema Sundar

Esophageal cancer is the sixth most common cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Adenocarcinoma is more common in North America and Western European countries, originating mostly in the lower third of the esophagus, which often involves the esophagogastric junction (EGJ). Recent randomized trials have shown that the addition of preoperative chemoradiation or perioperative chemotherapy to surgery significantly improves survival in patients with resectable cancer. Targeted therapies with trastuzumab and ramucirumab have produced encouraging results in the treatment of advanced or metastatic EGJ adenocarcinomas. Multidisciplinary team management is essential for patients with esophageal and EGJ cancers. This portion of the NCCN Guidelines for Esophageal and EGJ Cancers discusses management of locally advanced adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and EGJ.

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Jaffer A. Ajani, James S. Barthel, David J. Bentrem, Thomas A. D'Amico, Prajnan Das, Crystal S. Denlinger, Charles S. Fuchs, Hans Gerdes, Robert E. Glasgow, James A. Hayman, Wayne L. Hofstetter, David H. Ilson, Rajesh N. Keswani, Lawrence R. Kleinberg, W. Michael Korn, A. Craig Lockhart, Mary F. Mulcahy, Mark B. Orringer, Raymond U. Osarogiagbon, James A. Posey, Aaron R. Sasson, Walter J. Scott, Stephen Shibata, Vivian E. M. Strong, Thomas K. Varghese Jr., Graham Warren, Mary Kay Washington, Christopher Willett and Cameron D. Wright

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Jaffer A. Ajani, James S. Barthel, Tanios Bekaii-Saab, David J. Bentrem, Thomas A. D'Amico, Prajnan Das, Crystal Denlinger, Charles S. Fuchs, Hans Gerdes, James A. Hayman, Lisa Hazard, Wayne L. Hofstetter, David H. Ilson, Rajesh N. Keswani, Lawrence R. Kleinberg, Michael Korn, Kenneth Meredith, Mary F. Mulcahy, Mark B. Orringer, Raymond U. Osarogiagbon, James A. Posey, Aaron R. Sasson, Walter J. Scott, Stephen Shibata, Vivian E. M. Strong, Mary Kay Washington, Christopher Willett, Douglas E. Wood, Cameron D. Wright and Gary Yang

Overview Cancers originating in the esophagus, gastroesophageal junctions, and stomach constitute a major health problem worldwide. In the United States, 37,600 new diagnoses of and 25,150 deaths from upper gastrointestinal cancers were estimated in 2009. 1 A dramatic shift in the location of upper gastrointestinal tumors has occurred in the United States, 2 and changes in histology and location of them were observed in some parts of Europe. 3,4 In countries in the Western Hemisphere, the most common sites of gastric cancer are the proximal lesser curvature, cardia, and gastroesophageal junction. 2 These changing trends may also begin to occur in South America and Asia. Epidemiology Gastric cancer is rampant in many countries around the world. In Japan, it remains the most common type of cancer among men; in China, more new cases are diagnosed each year than in any other country. The incidence of gastric cancer, however, has been declining globally since World War II and it is one of the least common cancers in North America. By some estimates, it is the fourth most common cancer worldwide. 5 In 2009, 21,130 new diagnoses of gastric cancer were estimated in the United States and 10,620 deaths expected. 1 In developed countries, the incidence of gastric cancer originating from the cardia follows the distribution of esophageal cancer. 6–8 Noncardia gastric adenocarcinoma has marked geographic variation, with countries such as Japan, Korea, China, Taiwan, Costa Rica, Peru, Brazil, Chile, and the former Soviet Union showing a high incidence. 9 In contrast to the incidence trends in the West, nonproximal...
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Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma, Version 2.2012

Featured Updates to the NCCN Guidelines

Margaret A. Tempero, J. Pablo Arnoletti, Stephen W. Behrman, Edgar Ben-Josef, Al B. Benson III, Ephraim S. Casper, Steven J. Cohen, Brian Czito, Joshua D. I. Ellenhorn, William G. Hawkins, Joseph Herman, John P. Hoffman, Andrew Ko, Srinadh Komanduri, Albert Koong, Wen Wee Ma, Mokenge P. Malafa, Nipun B. Merchant, Sean J. Mulvihill, Peter Muscarella II, Eric K. Nakakura, Jorge Obando, Martha B. Pitman, Aaron R. Sasson, Anitra Tally, Sarah P. Thayer, Samuel Whiting, Robert A. Wolff, Brian M. Wolpin, Deborah A. Freedman-Cass and Dorothy A. Shead

The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma discuss the workup and management of tumors of the exocrine pancreas. These NCCN Guidelines Insights provide a summary and explanation of major changes to the 2012 NCCN Guidelines for Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma. The panel made 3 significant updates to the guidelines: 1) more detail was added regarding multiphase CT techniques for diagnosis and staging of pancreatic cancer, and pancreas protocol MRI was added as an emerging alternative to CT; 2) the use of a fluoropyrimidine plus oxaliplatin (e.g., 5-FU/leucovorin/oxaliplatin or capecitabine/oxaliplatin) was added as an acceptable chemotherapy combination for patients with advanced or metastatic disease and good performance status as a category 2B recommendation; and 3) the panel developed new recommendations concerning surgical technique and pathologic analysis and reporting.

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Margaret A. Tempero, Mokenge P. Malafa, Stephen W. Behrman, Al B. Benson III, Ephraim S. Casper, E. Gabriela Chiorean, Vincent Chung, Steven J. Cohen, Brian Czito, Anitra Engebretson, Mary Feng, William G. Hawkins, Joseph Herman, John P. Hoffman, Andrew Ko, Srinadh Komanduri, Albert Koong, Andrew M. Lowy, Wen Wee Ma, Nipun B. Merchant, Sean J. Mulvihill, Peter Muscarella II, Eric K. Nakakura, Jorge Obando, Martha B. Pitman, Sushanth Reddy, Aaron R. Sasson, Sarah P. Thayer, Colin D. Weekes, Robert A. Wolff, Brian M. Wolpin, Jennifer L. Burns and Deborah A. Freedman-Cass

The NCCN Guidelines for Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma discuss the diagnosis and management of adenocarcinomas of the exocrine pancreas and are intended to assist with clinical decision-making. These NCCN Guidelines Insights summarize major discussion points from the 2014 NCCN Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Panel meeting. The panel discussion focused mainly on the management of borderline resectable and locally advanced disease. In particular, the panel discussed the definition of borderline resectable disease, role of neoadjuvant therapy in borderline disease, role of chemoradiation in locally advanced disease, and potential role of newer, more active chemotherapy regimens in both settings.