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Amy A. Kirkham, Riggs J. Klika, Tara Ballard, Paul Downey, and Kristin L. Campbell

Background: Although exercise has been widely established as an efficacious rehabilitative therapy for cancer survivors in rigorously designed research studies, demonstration of translation of this research into clinical oncology practice is needed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a real-world cancer rehabilitation program implemented within a healthcare setting. Patients and Methods: This study involved 299 adult cancer survivors enrolled in a hospital-based, supervised, individualized, cancer rehabilitation program. A retrospective review of the 132 participants who completed the follow-up assessment was performed. Sixty-minute sessions consisting of aerobic, resistance, flexibility, and relaxation exercises were performed twice weekly. Questionnaires and fitness assessments were administered at enrollment and after 24 sessions by exercise physiologists. Change in a number of health-related physical fitness and patient-reported outcomes and the influence of baseline characteristics on program outcomes were assessed. Results: There were no baseline differences between those who completed the follow-up assessment and those who withdrew. Statistically and/or clinically meaningful improvements occurred in functional capacity, blood pressure, muscular endurance, flexibility, health-related quality of life, and fatigue, but not in body composition. Age, marital status, radiation treatment status, exercise frequency before diagnosis, smoking status, and alcohol consumption frequency influenced functional capacity and/or quality-of-life changes. Conclusions: Adoption of cancer rehabilitation as a standard part of oncology care may improve cancer survivors' health and well-being.

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Amy A. Kirkham, Karen A. Gelmon, Cheri L. Van Patten, Kelcey A. Bland, Holly Wollmann, Donald C. McKenzie, Taryne Landry, and Kristin L. Campbell

Background: Available preliminary evidence is conflicting on whether exercise can positively influence antineoplastic treatment tolerance and in turn improve survival. Patients and Methods: This study compared chemotherapy treatment tolerance and survival among women receiving adjuvant chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer who participated in a single-arm trial of supervised aerobic and resistance exercise programming versus a historical cohort that did not receive structured exercise programming. Results: The exercise group (EX; n=73) and control group (CTR; n=85) participants were matched on age and treatment and balanced on medical history, cancer diagnosis, and body mass index. Attendance in the EX group was 64% ± 27% of 3 offered sessions per week. For all chemotherapy agents combined, the relative risk (RR) of a chemotherapy dose reduction (RR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.54–1.11) or delay (RR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.62–1.80) did not differ between groups. However, the EX group had reduced relative and absolute risks of a dose reduction in doxorubicin by 60% and 18%, respectively. For all agents combined, there were no differences between groups in risk of anemia, neutropenia, or weight gain. In the EX group, dose reductions due to neutropenia (P=.027), other infections (P=.049), and fatigue (P=.037) were less common, whereas mucositis was more common (P=.023), compared with the CTR group. The EX group had reduced relative and absolute risks of weight gain on the docetaxel + cyclophosphamide regimen by 38% and 30%, respectively. After a median follow-up of 70 months (range, 54–84 months), there was no difference between the EX and CTR groups in disease-free survival events (n=8 [11%] vs n=9 [11%], respectively; log-rank test, P=.78) or overall survival events (n=5 [7%] vs n=6 [7%], respectively; log-rank test, P=.974). Conclusions: Overall, exercise programming during adjuvant chemotherapy does not appear to impact treatment tolerance or survival in women receiving common modern regimens of adjuvant chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer. However, exercise may provide selective benefits, depending on the treatment regimen received.