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Bin-Yi Xiao, Xuan Zhang, Tai-Yuan Cao, Dan-Dan Li, Wu Jiang, Ling-Heng Kong, Jing-Hua Tang, Kai Han, Chen-Zhi Zhang, Wei-Jian Mei, Jian Xiao, Zhi-Zhong Pan, Yun-Feng Li, Xiao-Shi Zhang, and Pei-Rong Ding

Background: Our study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of neoadjuvant anti–PD-1 treatment for localized mismatch repair–deficient (dMMR) colorectal cancer (CRC). Patients and Methods: The study cohort included patients with localized dMMR CRC who received PD-1 inhibitors as neoadjuvant therapy from 3 medical centers in Southern China. Main eligibility criteria included age between 18 and 75 years, ECOG performance status of 0 or 1, and receipt of ≥2 doses of PD-1 inhibitors. Results: A total of 73 patients were included. Most of the tumors were locally advanced, including 19 (26.0%) T4a and 29 (39.7%) T4b. Most patients (79.5%) received PD-1 inhibitor monotherapy. Objective response per radiologic assessment was achieved in 62 (84.9%) patients, including 17 (23.3%) with complete response (CR) and 45 (61.6%) with partial response, with a median time to response of 9.6 weeks. Patients with T4a/4b disease had a similar response rate as those with T2–3 disease (84.0% vs 85.4%; P=.999). As of writing, a total of 50 patients have undergone surgery. Pathologic CR was achieved in most (57.1%) patients and remained high (59.5%) even among the 38 patients with T4a/4b disease. The 17 patients with CR did not undergo surgery and adopted a watch-and-wait strategy. After a median follow-up of 17.2 months (range, 3.4–45.1 months), the overall median recurrence-free and overall survivals were not reached. Among patients undergoing surgery or achieving CR, the 2-year tumor-specific disease-free and overall survival rates were both 100%. During neoadjuvant treatment, grade 3–4 adverse events occurred in 8 patients; 4 required acute intervention. Severe postoperative complications were recorded in 4 patients, 3 of whom required a second surgery. Conclusions: Neoadjuvant therapy with PD-1 blockade is highly effective for localized dMMR CRC, with an acceptable safety profile and low recurrence rate. This treatment holds promise for becoming the new standard of care for localized dMMR CRCs.

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Yao Zhu, Yu Wei, Hao Zeng, Yonghong Li, Chi-Fai Ng, Fangjian Zhou, Caiyun He, Guangxi Sun, Yuchao Ni, Peter K.F. Chiu, Jeremy Y.C. Teoh, Beihe Wang, Jian Pan, Fangning Wan, Bo Dai, Xiaojian Qin, Guowen Lin, Hualei Gan, Junlong Wu, and Dingwei Ye

Background: Although China accounts for 7.8% of worldwide new prostate cancer (PCa) cases and 14.5% of new deaths according to GLOBOCAN 2020, the risk of PCa associated with germline mutations is poorly defined, hampered in part by lack of nationwide evidence. Here, we sequenced 19 PCa predisposition genes in 1,836 Chinese patients with PCa and estimated disease risk associated with inherited mutations. Patients and Methods: Patients were recruited from 4 tertiary cancer centers (n=1,160) and a commercial laboratory (n=676). Germline DNA was sequenced using a multigene panel, and pathogenic/likely pathogenic (P/LP) mutation frequencies in patients with PCa were compared with populations from the gnomAD (Genome Aggregation Database) and ChinaMAP (China Metabolic Analytics Project) databases. Clinical characteristics and progression-free survival were assessed by mutation status. Results: Of 1,160 patients from hospitals, 89.7% had Gleason scores ≥8, and 65.6% had metastases. P/LP mutations were identified in 8.49% of Chinese patients with PCa. Association with PCa risk was significant for mutations in ATM (odds ratio [OR], 5.9; 95% CI, 3.1–11.1), BRCA2 (OR, 15.3; 95% CI, 10.0–23.2), MSH2 (OR, 15.8; 95% CI, 4.2–59.6), and PALB2 (OR, 5.9; 95% CI, 2.7–13.2). Compared with those without mutations, patients with mutations in ATM, BRCA2, MSH2, or PALB2 showed a poor outcome with treatment using androgen deprivation therapy and abiraterone (hazard ratio, 2.19 [95% CI, 1.34–3.58] and 2.47 [95% CI, 1.23–4.96], respectively) but similar benefit from docetaxel. Conclusions: The present multicenter study confirmed that a significant proportion of Chinese patients with PCa had inherited mutations and identified predisposition genes in this underreported ethnicity. These data provide empirical evidence for precision prevention and prognostic estimation in Chinese patients with PCa.