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Therese B. Bevers, Deborah K. Armstrong, Banu Arun, Robert W. Carlson, Kenneth H. Cowan, Mary B. Daly, Irvin Fleming, Judy E. Garber, Mary Gemignani, William J. Gradishar, Helen Krontiras, Swati Kulkarni, Christine Laronga, Loretta Loftus, Deborah J. MacDonald, Martin C. Mahoney, Sofia D. Merajver, Ingrid Meszoely, Lisa Newman, Elizabeth Pritchard, Victoria Seewaldt, Rena V. Sellin, Charles L. Shapiro, and John H. Ward

Hodgkin disease], hormone replacement therapy [HRT], alcohol consumption); and other factors (e.g., number of breast biopsies, atypical hyperplasia or lobular carcinoma in situ [LCIS], breast density, body mass index). Estimating breast cancer risk for

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Duke Comprehensive Cancer Center

Oral cavity, pharyngeal, and laryngeal cancers account for about 3% of new cancer cases in the United States. Alcohol and tobacco abuse are common etiologic factors in some of these cancers. Moreover, because the entire aerodigestive tract epithelium may be exposed to these carcinogens, patients with head and neck cancer are at risk for developing second primary neoplasms. Stage at diagnosis is the most predictive factor of survival. Important new updates to the NCCN guidelines for 2008 include the addition of chemo/radiation therapy as an option in adjuvant treatment for several head and neck cancers and the addition of human papilloma virus testing to the workup. This version of the guidelines is limited to tumors arising in the oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, nasopharynx, and glottic and supraglottic larynx. The complete version can be found on the NCCN Web site at www.nccn.org

For the most recent version of the guidelines, please visit NCCN.org

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The NCCN Head and Neck Cancers guidelines address tumors arising in the lip, oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, glottic and supraglottic larynx, paranasal (ethmoid and maxillary) sinuses, nasopharynx, and salivary glands, as well as occult primary cancer. Approximately 39,250 new cases of oral cavity, pharyngeal, and laryngeal cancers will occur in 2005, which accounts for about 3% of new cancer cases in the United States. An estimated 11,090 deaths from head and neck (H&N) cancers will occur in 2005. Alcohol and tobacco abuse are common etiologic factors in cancers of the oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, and larynx. Moreover, because the entire aerodigestive tract epithelium may be exposed to these carcinogens, patients with H&N cancer are at risk for developing second primary neoplasms of the H&N, lung, and esophagus.

For the most recent version of the guidelines, please visit NCCN.org

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David S. Ettinger, Debra K. Armstrong, Sally Barbour, Michael J. Berger, Philip J. Bierman, Bob Bradbury, Georgianna Ellis, Steve Kirkegaard, Dwight D. Kloth, Mark G. Kris, Dean Lim, Michael Anne Markiewicz, Lida Nabati, Carli Nesheiwat, Hope S. Rugo, Steven M. Sorscher, Lisa Stucky-Marshal, Barbara Todaro, and Susan Urba

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Mary Daly

risk for breast cancer among women who consume alcohol is 1.5, and this risk increases with increasing amounts. The use of combined estrogen/progesterone hormone replacement therapy has been shown to increase the risk of breast cancer by 25%. In the

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Shehzad K. Niazi, Aaron Spaulding, Emily Brennan, Sarah K. Meier, Julia E. Crook, Lauren F. Cornell, Sikander Ailawadhi, Matthew M. Clark, and Teresa A. Rummans

Background Nearly 40% of patients with cancer have clinically significant psychiatric comorbidities, 1 – 3 and 50% have reported significant distress. 4 According to results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

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Carlo C. Maley and Anil K. Rustgi

. Association between body mass and adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and gastric cardia . Ann Intern Med 1999 ; 130 : 883 – 890 . 61. Vaughan TL Davis S Kristal A . Obesity, alcohol, and tobacco as risk factors for cancers of the esophagus and

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Mariela A. Blum Murphy, Takashi Taketa, Kazuki Sudo, Jeffrey H. Lee, and Jaffer A. Ajani

littoral, the central Asian republics, Mongolia, and northwestern China. Preneoplastic squamous cell dysplasia is often attributed to tobacco use, alcohol consumption, and decreased intake of fruits and vegetables. 6 , 7 Patients with an inactive

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Nishant Patel, Adam C. Yopp, and Amit G. Singal

. Age, sex, race/ethnicity, and lifetime alcohol and smoking history were recorded, with active alcohol abuse defined as drinking more than 40 g/d. Date of first medical encounter and number of primary care and hepatology clinic visits were documented

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Suneel D. Kamath, Sheetal M. Kircher, and Al B. Benson III

epidemiologic literature. 11 – 15 Included stigmatized behaviors were smoking, alcohol, intravenous drug use, sex, and tanning beds. We then compared the amount of revenue allocated to stigmatized cancers versus nonstigmatized cancers using descriptive