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Mei-Chin Hsieh, Lu Zhang, Xiao-Cheng Wu, Mary B. Davidson, Michelle Loch, and Vivien W. Chen

excluded cases for which adjuvant therapy was “considered,” whereas our study categorized “considered” systemic therapy as guideline-concordant despite whether the treatment was received. Numerous clinical trials have demonstrated the benefit of specific

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Robert W. Carlson, Clifford A. Hudis, and Kathy I. Pritchard

following tamoxifen as extended adjuvant therapy in receptor-positive breast cancer: updated findings from NCIC CTG MA.17 . J Natl Cancer Inst 2005 ; 97 : 1262 – 1271 . 22. Boccardo F Rubagotti A Puntoni M . Switching to anastrozole versus

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Irbaz Bin Riaz, Saad Ullah Malik, Muhammad Husnain, Qurat Ul Ain Riaz Sipra, Warda Faridi, Farva R. Gondal, Thanh Ho, Siddhartha Yadav, Zhen Wang, and Manish Kohli

alone because of its FDA approval. Heterogeneity was assessed with Cochrane Q statistic and was quantified with I 2 test. Risk for bias was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration’s tool. Results: The 4 RCTs included 4,820 patients. Adjuvant therapy

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Jacqueline Jonklaas

Normal thyrocytes and thyroid cancer cells are characterized by possession of a sodium iodide symporter. Radioiodine administration is a unique and powerful means of treating differentiated thyroid cancer because of the ability of thyroid cancer cells to concentrate beta-emitting radiolabeled iodine. Several manipulations, such as iodine depletion and thyroid hormone-stimulating hormone elevation, are used to enhance uptake of radiolabeled iodine by tumor cells. Adjuvant radioiodine therapy, given to patients without evidence of residual disease, enhances the sensitivity of subsequent surveillance and may decrease recurrence rates and mortality. However, its exact role in the management of low-risk patients merits further investigation. In contrast, radioactive iodine therapy used in patients with residual or metastatic disease clearly improves outcomes. Several studies show decreased recurrence and mortality rates in patients treated with radioiodine compared with those not receiving radioactive iodine. Adverse events from radioiodine therapy include salivary gland dysfunction, bone marrow suppression, and reproductive disturbances. Side effects of radioiodine therapy are generally greater when higher activities of radioiodine are used and may be transient or permanent. Secondary malignancies also may occur after radioiodine therapy. These side effects must be weighed against potential benefits, especially when radioactive iodine is used as adjuvant therapy. Stimulation of the expression of the sodium iodide symporter, or its introduction de novo into nonthyroid cells, is promising in treating poorly differentiated thyroid cancer and nonthyroid malignancies, respectively.

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Brian Vicuna and Al B. Benson III

for Medicare beneficiaries with stage II colon cancer . J Clin Oncol 2002 ; 20 : 3999 – 4005 . 3. Buyse M Piedbois P . Should Dukes' B patients receive adjuvant therapy? A statistical perspective [abstract] . Semin Oncol 2001 ; 28 ( 1

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Amelia B. Zelnak and Ruth M. O'Regan

clearly defined. A meta-analysis of trials comparing ovarian ablation or suppression versus no adjuvant therapy showed improved outcomes; however, patients did not receive chemotherapy or tamoxifen. 10 Other trials investigating the role of ovarian

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Heidi J. Gray

. Concurrent chemotherapy and pelvic radiation therapy compared with pelvic radiation therapy alone as adjuvant therapy after radical surgery in high-risk early-stage cancer of the cervix . J Clin Oncol 2000 ; 18 : 1606 – 1613 . 13. Whitney CW

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Jennifer A. Ligibel and Eric P. Winer

-negative breast cancer who have estrogen-receptor-positive tumors . N Engl J Med 1989 ; 320 : 479 – 484 . 4 Panel NIoHCD . National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Conference Statement: Adjuvant Therapy for Breast Cancer, November 1

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Axel Grothey and Alan P. Venook

Translational Research, and Chief, GI Oncology Clinical Trials Program, University of California, San Francisco. Dr. Venook discussed new recommendations for treating metastatic colon cancer. IDEA Informs Adjuvant Therapy for Localized Colon Cancer The

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Maxwell T. Vergo and Al B. Benson III

risk reduction), which was nonsignificant. Both studies were underpowered to detect an OS benefit, and therefore definitive conclusions about 5-FU–based adjuvant therapy in stage II disease are difficult to draw from these studies. In contrast, 2