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Jason P. Wilson, David Mattson, and Stephen B. Edge

.2 mm as isolated tumor cells (ITC), and metastases of 0.2 to 2 mm as micrometastases. 13 The purpose of the ITC classification is to define very small groups (< 200) of cells. The staging system denotes nodes that are positive for ITC as pN0(i+) and

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David S. Ettinger, Wallace Akerley, Hossein Borghaei, Andrew C. Chang, Richard T. Cheney, Lucian R. Chirieac, Thomas A. D’Amico, Todd L. Demmy, Apar Kishor P. Ganti, Ramaswamy Govindan, Frederic W. Grannis Jr, Leora Horn, Thierry M. Jahan, Mohammad Jahanzeb, Anne Kessinger, Ritsuko Komaki, Feng-Ming (Spring) Kong, Mark G. Kris, Lee M. Krug, Inga T. Lennes, Billy W. Loo Jr, Renato Martins, Janis O’Malley, Raymond U. Osarogiagbon, Gregory A. Otterson, Jyoti D. Patel, Mary C. Pinder-Schenck, Katherine M. Pisters, Karen Reckamp, Gregory J. Riely, Eric Rohren, Scott J. Swanson, Douglas E. Wood, Stephen C. Yang, Miranda Hughes, and Kristina M. Gregory

from chemotherapy, usually with a platinum-based regimen. 98 – 100 Many drugs are useful for stage IV NSCLC (see “Treatment of Recurrences and Distant Metastases” on page 1260, and pages 1248–1249 of the algorithm). 99 , 100 , 103 , 104 These drugs

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Al B. Benson III, J. Pablo Arnoletti, Tanios Bekaii-Saab, Emily Chan, Yi-Jen Chen, Michael A. Choti, Harry S. Cooper, Raza A. Dilawari, Paul F. Engstrom, Peter C. Enzinger, James W. Fleshman Jr., Charles S. Fuchs, Jean L. Grem, James A. Knol, Lucille A. Leong, Edward Lin, Kilian Salerno May, Mary F. Mulcahy, Kate Murphy, Eric Rohren, David P. Ryan, Leonard Saltz, Sunil Sharma, David Shibata, John M. Skibber, William Small Jr., Constantinos T. Sofocleous, Alan P. Venook, and Christopher Willett

general surveillance. Furthermore, a PET/CT scan does not obviate the need for a contrast-enhanced diagnostic CT scan. If abnormalities are seen on CT or MRI scan that are considered suspicious but inconclusive for metastases, then a PET/CT scan may be

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Margaret von Mehren, R. Lor Randall, Robert S. Benjamin, Sarah Boles, Marilyn M. Bui, Kristen N. Ganjoo, Suzanne George, Ricardo J. Gonzalez, Martin J. Heslin, John M. Kane III, Vicki Keedy, Edward Kim, Henry Koon, Joel Mayerson, Martin McCarter, Sean V. McGarry, Christian Meyer, Zachary S. Morris, Richard J. O'Donnell, Alberto S. Pappo, I. Benjamin Paz, Ivy A. Petersen, John D. Pfeifer, Richard F. Riedel, Bernice Ruo, Scott Schuetze, William D. Tap, Jeffrey D. Wayne, Mary Anne Bergman, and Jillian L. Scavone

the other malignant and benign lesions. An essential element of the workup is a history and physical (H&P) examination, imaging of the primary tumor and distant metastases, and a carefully planned biopsy (core needle or incisional biopsy). Adequate and

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Donald A. Podoloff, Ranjana H. Advani, Craig Allred, Al B. Benson III, Elizabeth Brown, Harold J. Burstein, Robert W. Carlson, R. Edward Coleman, Myron S. Czuczman, Dominique Delbeke, Stephen B. Edge, David S. Ettinger, Frederic W. Grannis Jr., Bruce E. Hillner, John M. Hoffman, Krystyna Kiel, Ritsuko Komaki, Steven M. Larson, David A. Mankoff, Kenneth E. Rosenzweig, John M. Skibber, Joachim Yahalom, JQ Michael Yu, and Andrew D. Zelenetz

liver, and then be referred for PET/CT to evaluate for extrahepatic metastases. Another common situation is a patient with a history of malignancy who is being followed up with serial CT scans and is undergoing a PET scan to follow-up the CT scan

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Gregory P. Kalemkerian and Shirish M. Gadgeel

years. 2 The original VALSG system defined limited-stage as: 1) disease confined to 1 hemithorax, although local extension may be present; 2) no extrathoracic metastases, except for ipsilateral supraclavicular lymph nodes if they can be included in the

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Marieke Pape, Steven C. Kuijper, Pauline A.J. Vissers, Laurens V. Beerepoot, Geert-Jan Creemers, Hanneke W.M. van Laarhoven, and Rob H.A. Verhoeven

with celiac lymph node metastases, which are regional lymph nodes (cN+) instead of extraregional lymph nodes (cM1) in the seventh and eighth versions. Treatment Treatment was mutually exclusive classified in the following order: palliative

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Matthew H. Kulke, Manisha H. Shah, Al B. Benson III, Emily Bergsland, Jordan D. Berlin, Lawrence S. Blaszkowsky, Lyska Emerson, Paul F. Engstrom, Paul Fanta, Thomas Giordano, Whitney S. Goldner, Thorvardur R. Halfdanarson, Martin J. Heslin, Fouad Kandeel, Pamela L. Kunz, Boris W. Kuvshinoff II, Christopher Lieu, Jeffrey F. Moley, Gitonga Munene, Venu G. Pillarisetty, Leonard Saltz, Julie Ann Sosa, Jonathan R. Strosberg, Jean-Nicolas Vauthey, Christopher Wolfgang, James C. Yao, Jennifer Burns, and Deborah Freedman-Cass

liver enzymes in the portal circulation. Thus, the classic syndrome, occurring in approximately 8% to 28% of patients with NETs, 14 , 15 is not usually observed unless liver metastases or, rarely, retroperitoneal disease have occurred, in which case

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Frank Balis, Daniel M. Green, Clarke Anderson, Shelly Cook, Jasreman Dhillon, Kenneth Gow, Susan Hiniker, Rama Jasty-Rao, Chi Lin, Harold Lovvorn III, Iain MacEwan, Julian Martinez-Agosto, Elizabeth Mullen, Erin S. Murphy, Mark Ranalli, Daniel Rhee, Denise Rokitka, Elisabeth (Lisa) Tracy, Tamara Vern-Gross, Michael F. Walsh, Amy Walz, Jonathan Wickiser, Matthew Zapala, Ryan A. Berardi, and Miranda Hughes

patients with WT have coagulopathy (acquired von Willebrand disease). 13 WT can extend locally to perirenal soft tissues, renal vein, and vena cava. The most common sites of hematogenous metastases include lung (81%), lung and liver (15%), and other sites

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Azeez Farooki

osteoclast targeted therapy for the prevention of bone metastases in prostate cancer. Metastatic Bone Disease: Focus on Imaging The most common site of metastases is the skeleton, with bone lesions causing SREs in many patients with breast, prostate