Anaplastic oligodendroglioma (AO) and anaplastic oligoastrocytoma (AOA) are uncommon malignant tumors occurring in adults, but have garnered attention because of a high rate of response to chemotherapy in early studies. However, no clinical trial had demonstrated benefit with the addition of chemotherapy to radiotherapy alone until the long-term results of RTOG 9402 and EORTC 26951. These studies revealed prolonged survival in patients with anaplastic gliomas harboring the 1p/19q codeletion when treated with PCV (procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine) and radiation therapy compared with radiation alone. These studies validated the use of 1p/19q codeletion status as a predictive biomarker in these tumors. Additional molecular characterization of these tumors may provide additional insight into treatment decisions, although these characterizations have yet to be fully elucidated. Even with the strength of the data advocating the use of combination therapy (PCV and radiotherapy), the incorporation of newer, less-toxic drugs such as temozolomide into many practices in the past decade raises important questions regarding the optimal chemotherapy regimen. Unfortunately, additional definitive phase III trials will take several years to answer remaining questions. Regardless, it is clear that patients with 1p/19q codeleted AO or AOA who can tolerate chemotherapy should not receive radiotherapy alone.
Clinical Discussion of the Management of Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma/Oligoastrocytoma (Both Codeleted and Nondeleted)
Mark D. Anderson and Mark R. Gilbert
Proposed Additions to the NCCN Guidelines for Adult Medulloblastoma
Marta Penas-Prado, Terri S. Armstrong, and Mark R. Gilbert
Medulloblastoma is a rare brain tumor that occurs in both children and adults, with patients aged 15 to 39 years accounting for 30% of all cases. In adults, guidelines for diagnosis and treatment are often based on retrospective data and extrapolated from the pediatric experience due to limited availability of prospective trials or registries involving adults. Importantly, adult patients differ from pediatric patients in many aspects, including the molecular features of the tumor and tolerance to treatment. In 2017, the NCI was granted support from the Cancer Moonshot initiative to address the challenges and unmet needs of adults with rare central nervous system (CNS) tumors through the NCI Comprehensive Oncology Network for Evaluating Rare CNS Tumors (NCI-CONNECT). On November 25, 2019, NCI-CONNECT convened a multidisciplinary workshop on adult medulloblastoma. Working groups identified unmet needs in clinical care and research and developed specific action items, including a proposal for inclusion of new items in the NCCN Guidelines for Adult Medulloblastoma, delineated in this review along with the evidence supporting their incorporation. Recommendations included facilitating referral of patients to centers of excellence; promoting patient participation in clinical trials or registries; encouraging use of DNA methylation for confirmation of diagnosis and subgrouping; offering counseling on contraception and fertility preservation; evaluating patients for symptoms and medical management of endocrine, vision, hearing, and neurocognitive deficits; providing psychosocial support and referral to neurorehabilitation; minimizing delays in therapy; and incorporating imaging standards and criteria for progression.
Central Nervous System Cancers
Louis Burt Nabors, Mario Ammirati, Philip J. Bierman, Henry Brem, Nicholas Butowski, Marc C. Chamberlain, Lisa M. DeAngelis, Robert A. Fenstermaker, Allan Friedman, Mark R. Gilbert, Deneen Hesser, Matthias Holdhoff, Larry Junck, Ronald Lawson, Jay S. Loeffler, Moshe H. Maor, Paul L. Moots, Tara Morrison, Maciej M. Mrugala, Herbert B. Newton, Jana Portnow, Jeffrey J. Raizer, Lawrence Recht, Dennis C. Shrieve, Allen K. Sills Jr, David Tran, Nam Tran, Frank D. Vrionis, Patrick Y. Wen, Nicole McMillian, and Maria Ho
Primary and metastatic tumors of the central nervous system are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms with varied outcomes and management strategies. Recently, improved survival observed in 2 randomized clinical trials established combined chemotherapy and radiation as the new standard for treating patients with pure or mixed anaplastic oligodendroglioma harboring the 1p/19q codeletion. For metastatic disease, increasing evidence supports the efficacy of stereotactic radiosurgery in treating patients with multiple metastatic lesions but low overall tumor volume. These guidelines provide recommendations on the diagnosis and management of this group of diseases based on clinical evidence and panel consensus. This version includes expert advice on the management of low-grade infiltrative astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, anaplastic gliomas, glioblastomas, medulloblastomas, supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors, and brain metastases. The full online version, available at NCCN. org, contains recommendations on additional subtypes.
Central Nervous System Cancers
Steven S. Brem, Philip J. Bierman, Henry Brem, Nicholas Butowski, Marc C. Chamberlain, Ennio A. Chiocca, Lisa M. DeAngelis, Robert A. Fenstermaker, Allan Friedman, Mark R. Gilbert, Deneen Hesser, Larry Junck, Gerald P. Linette, Jay S. Loeffler, Moshe H. Maor, Madison Michael, Paul L. Moots, Tara Morrison, Maciej Mrugala, Louis Burt Nabors, Herbert B. Newton, Jana Portnow, Jeffrey J. Raizer, Lawrence Recht, Dennis C. Shrieve, Allen K. Sills Jr, Frank D. Vrionis, and Patrick Y. Wen
Central Nervous System Cancers, Version 2.2014
Louis Burt Nabors, Jana Portnow, Mario Ammirati, Henry Brem, Paul Brown, Nicholas Butowski, Marc C. Chamberlain, Lisa M. DeAngelis, Robert A. Fenstermaker, Allan Friedman, Mark R. Gilbert, Jona Hattangadi-Gluth, Deneen Hesser, Matthias Holdhoff, Larry Junck, Ronald Lawson, Jay S. Loeffler, Paul L. Moots, Maciej M. Mrugala, Herbert B. Newton, Jeffrey J. Raizer, Lawrence Recht, Nicole Shonka, Dennis C. Shrieve, Allen K. Sills Jr, Lode J. Swinnen, David Tran, Nam Tran, Frank D. Vrionis, Patrick Yung Wen, Nicole R. McMillian, and Maria Ho
The NCCN Guidelines for Central Nervous System Cancers provide multidisciplinary recommendations for the clinical management of patients with cancers of the central nervous system. These NCCN Guidelines Insights highlight recent updates regarding the management of metastatic brain tumors using radiation therapy. Use of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is no longer limited to patients with 3 or fewer lesions, because data suggest that total disease burden, rather than number of lesions, is predictive of survival benefits associated with the technique. SRS is increasingly becoming an integral part of management of patients with controlled, low-volume brain metastases.
Central Nervous System Cancers, Version 1.2015
Louis Burt Nabors, Jana Portnow, Mario Ammirati, Joachim Baehring, Henry Brem, Paul Brown, Nicholas Butowski, Marc C. Chamberlain, Robert A. Fenstermaker, Allan Friedman, Mark R. Gilbert, Jona Hattangadi-Gluth, Matthias Holdhoff, Larry Junck, Thomas Kaley, Ronald Lawson, Jay S. Loeffler, Mary P. Lovely, Paul L. Moots, Maciej M. Mrugala, Herbert B. Newton, Ian Parney, Jeffrey J. Raizer, Lawrence Recht, Nicole Shonka, Dennis C. Shrieve, Allen K. Sills Jr, Lode J. Swinnen, David Tran, Nam Tran, Frank D. Vrionis, Stephanie Weiss, Patrick Yung Wen, Nicole McMillian, and Anita M. Engh
The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Central Nervous System (CNS) Cancers provide interdisciplinary recommendations for managing adult CNS cancers. Primary and metastatic brain tumors are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms with varied outcomes and management strategies. These NCCN Guidelines Insights summarize the NCCN CNS Cancers Panel's discussion and highlight notable changes in the 2015 update. This article outlines the data and provides insight into panel decisions regarding adjuvant radiation and chemotherapy treatment options for high-risk newly diagnosed low-grade gliomas and glioblastomas. Additionally, it describes the panel's assessment of new data and the ongoing debate regarding the use of alternating electric field therapy for high-grade gliomas.