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Cardiovascular Implications of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Inhibition Among Adolescents/Young Adults in ECOG-ACRIN E2805

Wendy J. Bottinor, Yael Flamand, Naomi B. Haas, Anne M. ONeill, Robert S. DiPaola, Pearl Subramanian, David Cella, W. Gregory Hundley, Lynne I. Wagner, John M. Salsman, and Bonnie Ky

Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among adolescents and young adults (AYAs) diagnosed with cancer. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence and predictors of left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) and hypertension among AYAs receiving VEGF inhibition compared with non-AYAs. Methods: This retrospective analysis used data from the ASSURE trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00326898), in which participants with nonmetastatic, high-risk, renal cell cancer were randomized to sunitinib, sorafenib, or placebo. The incidence of LVSD (left ventricular ejection fraction decrease >15%) and hypertension (blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg) were compared using nonparametric tests. Multivariable logistic regression examined the association between AYA status, LVSD, and hypertension while adjusting for clinical factors. Results: AYAs represented 7% (103/1,572) of the population. Over a study treatment period of 54 weeks, the incidence of LVSD was not significantly different among AYAs (3%; 95% CI, 0.6%–8.3%) versus non-AYAs (2%; 95% CI, 1.2%–2.7%). The incidence of hypertension was significantly lower among AYAs (18%; 95% CI, 7.5%–33.5%) compared with non-AYAs (46%; 95% CI, 41.9%–50.4%) in the placebo arm. In the sunitinib and sorafenib groups, the incidence of hypertension for AYAs compared with non-AYAs was 29% (95% CI, 15.1%–47.5%) versus 47% (95% CI, 42.3%–51.7%), and 54% (95% CI, 33.9%–72.5%) versus 63% (95% CI, 58.6%–67.7%), respectively. AYA status (odds ratio, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.31–0.75) and female sex (odds ratio, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.59–0.92) were each associated with a lower risk of hypertension. Conclusions: LVSD and hypertension were prevalent among AYAs. CVD among AYAs is only partially explained by cancer therapy. Understanding CVD risk among AYA cancer survivors is important for promoting cardiovascular health in this growing population.

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Early Increases in Blood Pressure and Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events in Patients With Renal Cell Carcinoma and Thyroid Cancer Treated With VEGFR TKIs

Vivek Narayan, Tao Liu, Yunjie Song, Joshua Mitchell, JoRean Sicks, Ilana Gareen, Lova Sun, Srinivas Denduluri, Ciaran Fisher, Jesse Manikowski, Mark Wojtowicz, Joseph Vadakara, Naomi Haas, Kenneth B. Margulies, and Bonnie Ky

Background: Although VEGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are a preferred systemic treatment approach for patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and thyroid carcinoma (TC), treatment-related cardiovascular (CV) toxicity is an important contributor to morbidity. However, the clinical risk assessment and impact of CV toxicities, including early significant hypertension, among real-world advanced cancer populations receiving VEGFR TKI therapies remain understudied. Methods: In a multicenter, retrospective cohort study across 3 large and diverse US health systems, we characterized baseline hypertension and CV comorbidity in patients with RCC and those with TC who are newly initiating VEGFR TKI therapy. We also evaluated baseline patient-, treatment-, and disease-related factors associated with the risk for treatment-related early hypertension (within 6 weeks of TKI initiation) and major adverse CV events (MACE), accounting for the competing risk of death in an advanced cancer population, after VEGFR TKI initiation. Results: Between 2008 and 2020, 987 patients (80.3% with RCC, 19.7% with TC) initiated VEGFR TKI therapy. The baseline prevalence of hypertension was high (61.5% and 53.6% in patients with RCC and TC, respectively). Adverse CV events, including heart failure and cerebrovascular accident, were common (occurring in 14.9% of patients) and frequently occurred early (46.3% occurred within 1 year of VEGFR TKI initiation). Baseline hypertension and Black race were the primary clinical factors associated with increased acute hypertensive risk within 6 weeks of VEGFR TKI initiation. However, early significant “on-treatment” hypertension was not associated with MACE. Conclusions: These multicenter, real-world findings indicate that hypertensive and CV morbidities are highly prevalent among patients initiating VEGFR TKI therapies, and baseline hypertension and Black race represent the primary clinical factors associated with VEGFR TKI–related early significant hypertension. However, early on-treatment hypertension was not associated with MACE, and cancer-specific CV risk algorithms may be warranted for patients initiating VEGFR TKIs.

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Kidney Cancer, Version 3.2022, NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology

Robert J. Motzer, Eric Jonasch, Neeraj Agarwal, Ajjai Alva, Michael Baine, Kathryn Beckermann, Maria I. Carlo, Toni K. Choueiri, Brian A. Costello, Ithaar H. Derweesh, Arpita Desai, Yasser Ged, Saby George, John L. Gore, Naomi Haas, Steven L. Hancock, Payal Kapur, Christos Kyriakopoulos, Elaine T. Lam, Primo N. Lara, Clayton Lau, Bryan Lewis, David C. Madoff, Brandon Manley, M. Dror Michaelson, Amir Mortazavi, Lakshminarayanan Nandagopal, Elizabeth R. Plimack, Lee Ponsky, Sundhar Ramalingam, Brian Shuch, Zachary L. Smith, Jeffrey Sosman, Mary A. Dwyer, Lisa A. Gurski, and Angela Motter

The NCCN Guidelines for Kidney Cancer focus on the screening, diagnosis, staging, treatment, and management of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Patients with relapsed or stage IV RCC typically undergo surgery and/or receive systemic therapy. Tumor histology and risk stratification of patients is important in therapy selection. The NCCN Guidelines for Kidney Cancer stratify treatment recommendations by histology; recommendations for first-line treatment of ccRCC are also stratified by risk group. To further guide management of advanced RCC, the NCCN Kidney Cancer Panel has categorized all systemic kidney cancer therapy regimens as “Preferred,” “Other Recommended Regimens,” or “Useful in Certain Circumstances.” This categorization provides guidance on treatment selection by considering the efficacy, safety, evidence, and other factors that play a role in treatment selection. These factors include pre-existing comorbidities, nature of the disease, and in some cases consideration of access to agents. This article summarizes surgical and systemic therapy recommendations for patients with relapsed or stage IV RCC.

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NCCN Guidelines Insights: Kidney Cancer, Version 1.2021

Featured Updates to the NCCN Guidelines

Robert J. Motzer, Eric Jonasch, Shawna Boyle, Maria I. Carlo, Brandon Manley, Neeraj Agarwal, Ajjai Alva, Katy Beckermann, Toni K. Choueiri, Brian A. Costello, Ithaar H. Derweesh, Arpita Desai, Saby George, John L. Gore, Naomi Haas, Steven L. Hancock, Christos Kyriakopoulos, Elaine T. Lam, Clayton Lau, Bryan Lewis, David C. Madoff, Brittany McCreery, M. Dror Michaelson, Amir Mortazavi, Lakshminarayanan Nandagopal, Phillip M. Pierorazio, Elizabeth R. Plimack, Lee Ponsky, Sundhar Ramalingam, Brian Shuch, Zachary L. Smith, Bradley Somer, Jeffrey Sosman, Mary A. Dwyer, and Angela D. Motter

The NCCN Guidelines for Kidney Cancer provide multidisciplinary recommendations for diagnostic workup, staging, and treatment of patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). These NCCN Guidelines Insights focus on recent updates to the guidelines, including changes to certain systemic therapy recommendations for patients with relapsed or stage IV RCC. They also discuss the addition of a new section to the guidelines that identifies and describes the most common hereditary RCC syndromes and provides recommendations for genetic testing, surveillance, and/or treatment options for patients who are suspected or confirmed to have one of these syndromes.

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NCCN Guidelines Insights: Kidney Cancer, Version 2.2020

Featured Updates to the NCCN Guidelines

Robert J. Motzer, Eric Jonasch, M. Dror Michaelson, Lakshminarayanan Nandagopal, John L. Gore, Saby George, Ajjai Alva, Naomi Haas, Michael R. Harrison, Elizabeth R. Plimack, Jeffrey Sosman, Neeraj Agarwal, Sam Bhayani, Toni K. Choueiri, Brian A. Costello, Ithaar H. Derweesh, Thomas H. Gallagher, Steven L. Hancock, Christos Kyriakopoulos, Chad LaGrange, Elaine T. Lam, Clayton Lau, Bryan Lewis, Brandon Manley, Brittany McCreery, Andrew McDonald, Amir Mortazavi, Phillip M. Pierorazio, Lee Ponsky, Bruce G. Redman, Bradley Somer, Geoffrey Wile, Mary A. Dwyer, CGC, Lydia J. Hammond, and Griselda Zuccarino-Catania

The NCCN Guidelines for Kidney Cancer provide multidisciplinary recommendations for the clinical management of patients with clear cell and non–clear cell renal cell carcinoma, and are intended to assist with clinical decision-making. These NCCN Guidelines Insights summarize the NCCN Kidney Cancer Panel discussions for the 2020 update to the guidelines regarding initial management and first-line systemic therapy options for patients with advanced clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

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NCCN Guidelines® Insights: Kidney Cancer, Version 2.2024

Featured Updates to the NCCN Guidelines

Robert J. Motzer, Eric Jonasch, Neeraj Agarwal, Ajjai Alva, Hilary Bagshaw, Michael Baine, Kathryn Beckermann, Maria I. Carlo, Toni K. Choueiri, Brian A. Costello, Ithaar H. Derweesh, Arpita Desai, Yasser Ged, Saby George, John L. Gore, Andrew Gunn, Naomi Haas, Michael Johnson, Payal Kapur, Jennifer King, Christos Kyriakopoulos, Elaine T. Lam, Primo N. Lara, Clayton Lau, Bryan Lewis, David C. Madoff, Brandon Manley, M. Dror Michaelson, Amir Mortazavi, Lee Ponsky, Sundhar Ramalingam, Brian Shuch, Zachary L. Smith, Jeffrey Sosman, Randy Sweis, Matthew Zibelman, Ryan Schonfeld, MaryElizabeth Stein, and Lisa A. Gurski

The NCCN Guidelines for Kidney Cancer provide multidisciplinary recommendations for diagnostic workup, staging, and treatment of patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). These NCCN Guidelines Insights focus on the systemic therapy options for patients with advanced RCC and summarize the new clinical data evaluated by the NCCN panel for the recommended therapies in Version 2.2024 of the NCCN Guidelines for Kidney Cancer.