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Julian C. Hong and Joseph K. Salama

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Daphna Y. Spiegel, Matthew J. Boyer, Julian C. Hong, Christina D. Williams, Michael J. Kelley, Joseph K. Salama and Manisha Palta

Background: Adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) after chemoradiation (CRT) and surgery for locoregionally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) is a standard of care in the United States. This study examined the role, optimal regimen, and duration of AC using data from the largest integrated health system in the United States. Patients and Methods: Using the Veterans Affairs Central Cancer Registry, patients with stage II–III rectal cancer diagnosed in 2001 through 2011 who received neoadjuvant CRT and surgery with or without AC were identified. Kaplan-Meier analysis, log-rank tests, and propensity score (PS) adjustment analysis were used to assess survival. Results: A total of 866 patients were identified; 417 received AC and 449 did not (observation [OBS] group). Median follow-up was 109 months. Median disease-specific survival (DSS) was not reached. Six-year DSS was 73.7%; 79.5% for the AC group versus 68.0% for the OBS group. PS-matched analysis for DSS favored AC (P=.0002). Median overall survival (OS) was 90.8 months. Six-year OS was 56.7%; 64.3% for AC versus 49.6% for OBS. In PS-matched analysis, median OS was 117.4 months for AC and 74.3 months for OBS (P<.0001). A DSS advantage was seen when comparing ≥4 months with <4 months of AC (P=.023). No difference in DSS or OS was seen with single-agent versus multiagent AC. Conclusions: In this population of patients with LARC treated with neoadjuvant CRT and surgery, OS and DSS were improved among those treated with AC versus OBS. DSS benefits were seen with ≥4 months of AC. No additional benefit was observed with multiagent therapy. In the absence of phase III data, these findings support the use of AC for LARC.

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Julian C. Hong, Matthew J. Boyer, Daphna Y. Spiegel, Christina D. Williams, Betty C. Tong, Scott L. Shofer, Michael J. Moravan, Michael J. Kelley and Joseph K. Salama

Background: Accurate staging for small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is critical for determining appropriate therapy. The clinical impact of increasing PET adoption and stage migration is well described in non–small cell lung cancer but not in SCLC. The objective of this study was to evaluate temporal trends in PET staging and survival in the Veterans Affairs Central Cancer Registry and the impact of PET on outcomes. Patients and Methods: Patients diagnosed with SCLC from 2001 to 2010 were identified. PET staging, overall survival (OS), and lung cancer–specific survival (LCSS) were assessed over time. The impact of PET staging on OS and LCSS was assessed for limited-stage (LS) and extensive-stage (ES) SCLC. Results: From 2001 to 2010, PET use in a total of 10,135 patients with SCLC increased from 1.1% to 39.2%. Median OS improved for all patients (from 6.2 to 7.9 months), those with LS-SCLC (from 10.9 to 13.2 months), and those with ES-SCLC (from 5.0 to 7.0 months). Among staged patients, the proportion of ES-SCLC increased from 63.9% to 65.7%. Among 1,536 patients with LS-SCLC treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy, 397 were staged by PET. In these patients, PET was associated with longer OS (median, 19.8 vs 14.3 months; hazard ratio [HR], 0.78; 95% CI, 0.68–0.90; P<.0001) and LCSS (median, 22.9 vs 16.7 months; HR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.63–0.87; P<.0001) with multivariate adjustment and propensity-matching. In the 6,143 patients with ES-SCLC, PET was also associated with improved OS and LCSS. Conclusions: From 2001 to 2010, PET staging increased in this large cohort, with a corresponding relative increase in ES-SCLC. PET was associated with greater OS and LCSS for LS-SCLC and ES-SCLC, likely reflecting stage migration and stage-appropriate therapy. These findings emphasize the importance of PET in SCLC and support its routine use.