Despite contemporary surgery, image-guided radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) persists or relapses in nearly all patients, and tumors almost always recur locally. Management of recurrent GBM is variable, but approaches include best supportive care, reoperation, reirradiation, and/or systemic therapy. Promising novel therapies include antiangiogenic agents and stereotactic radiosurgery, which have cytotoxic effects on tumor microvasculature. Emerging data suggest the safety and efficacy of bevacizumab and radiosurgery either alone or in combination. This report presents the case of a man with locally recurrent GBM treated with stereotactic radiosurgery and concurrent bevacizumab, and reviews the preclinical and clinical data supporting this approach.
Alvin R. Cabrera, Kyle C. Cuneo, James J. Vredenburgh, John H. Sampson, and John P. Kirkpatrick
David A. Reardon, Scott Turner, Katherine B. Peters, Annick Desjardins, Sridharan Gururangan, John H. Sampson, Roger E. McLendon, James E. Herndon II, Lee W. Jones, John P. Kirkpatrick, Allan H. Friedman, James J. Vredenburgh, Darell D. Bigner, and Henry S. Friedman
Glioblastoma, the most common primary malignant brain tumor among adults, is a highly angiogenic and deadly tumor. Angiogenesis in glioblastoma, driven by hypoxia-dependent and independent mechanisms, is primarily mediated by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and generates blood vessels with distinctive features. The outcome for patients with recurrent glioblastoma is poor because of ineffective therapies. However, recent encouraging rates of radiographic response and progression-free survival, and adequate safety, led the FDA to grant accelerated approval of bevacizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody against VEGF, for the treatment of recurrent glioblastoma in May 2009. These results have triggered significant interest in additional antiangiogenic agents and therapeutic strategies for patients with both recurrent and newly diagnosed glioblastoma. Given the potent antipermeability effect of VEGF inhibitors, the Radiologic Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (RANO) criteria were recently implemented to better assess response among patients with glioblastoma. Although bevacizumab improves survival and quality of life, eventual tumor progression is the norm. Better understanding of resistance mechanisms to VEGF inhibitors and identification of effective therapy after bevacizumab progression are currently a critical need for patients with glioblastoma.