Histologic transformation from adenocarcinoma to squamous cell carcinoma in lung cancer has not been reported as a mechanism of resistance to ALK inhibition. This report describes the clinical course of a female former light smoker with metastatic lung adenocarcinoma whose tumor underwent histologic transformation from a well-differentiated lung adenocarcinoma to a well-differentiated lung squamous cell carcinoma in the same location at the left mainstem bronchus while maintaining the ALK fusion oncogene without any resistance mutations. After experiencing disease progression while on crizotinib, the patient participated in clinical trials that provided early access to the novel ALK inhibitors ceritinib and alectinib before they were commercially available. Tumor recurrence occurred at the primary and metastatic central nervous system sites (ie, brain and spine). At tumor progression, liquid biopsy and tumor genomic profiling of plasma cell-free DNA next-generation sequencing (NGS) provided an accurate diagnosis with a short turnaround time compared with the tissue-based targeted capture NGS. The patient received several courses of radiation primarily to the brain and spine during her disease course. Her disease did not respond to the immune checkpoint inhibitor nivolumab, and she died on home hospice approximately 4 years after diagnosis. This case supports the importance of both histopathologic assessment and comprehensive genomic profiling in selecting appropriate treatment for patients with refractory, metastatic, ALK oncogene–driven non–small cell lung cancer. Use of symptom-directed radiation in tandem with ALK inhibitors contributed to the disease and symptomatic control and prolonged survival in this patient.
Jay Gong, Jeffrey P. Gregg, Weijie Ma, Ken Yoneda, Elizabeth H. Moore, Megan E. Daly, Yanhong Zhang, Melissa J. Williams, and Tianhong Li
Fangwen Zou, Hamzah Abu-Sbeih, Weijie Ma, Yuanzun Peng, Wei Qiao, Jianbo Wang, Amishi Y. Shah, Isabella C. Glitza Oliva, Sarina A. Piha-Paul, John A. Thompson, Hao Chi Zhang, Anusha S. Thomas, and Yinghong Wang
Background: Immune-mediated diarrhea and colitis (IMDC) is a common immune-related adverse effect related to immune checkpoint inhibitors. We aimed to identify risk factors for chronic IMDC and its prognostic value in cancer outcomes. Methods: We retrospectively collected data on patients with a diagnosis of IMDC between January 2018 and October 2019 and grouped them based on disease duration into acute (≤3 months) and chronic (>3 months) categories. A logistic regression model and the Kaplan-Meier method with log-rank tests were used for biostatistical analysis. Results: In our sample of 88 patients, 43 were in the chronic group and 45 were in the acute group. Genitourinary cancer and melanoma accounted for 70% of malignancies. PD-1/L1 monotherapy (52%) was the more frequently used regimen. We showed that chronic IMDC was associated with proton pump inhibitor use (odds ratio [OR], 3.96; P=.026), long duration of IMDC symptoms (OR, 1.05; P<.001) and hospitalization (OR, 1.07; P=.043), a histologic feature of chronic active colitis (OR, 4.8; P=.025) or microscopic colitis (OR, 5.0; P=.045), and delayed introduction of selective immunosuppressive therapy (infliximab/vedolizumab; OR, 1.06; P=.047). Chronic IMDC also reflected a better cancer response to immune checkpoint inhibitors (30% vs 51%; P=.002) and was accompanied by improved overall survival (P=.035). Similarly, higher doses of selective immunosuppressive therapy were associated with better overall survival (P=.018). Conclusions: Chronic IMDC can develop among patients with a more aggressive disease course and chronic features on colon histology. It likely reflects a prolonged immune checkpoint inhibitor effect and is associated with better cancer outcome and overall survival.
Jake S. Jacob, Barbara E. Dutra, Victor Garcia-Rodriguez, Kavea Panneerselvam, Fiyinfoluwa O. Abraham, Fangwen Zou, Weijie Ma, Petros Grivas, John A. Thompson, Mehmet Altan, Isabella C. Glitza Oliva, Hao Chi Zhang, Anusha S. Thomas, and Yinghong Wang
Background: Immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy predisposes patients to immune-related adverse events (irAEs). Data are limited regarding the incidence, management, and outcomes of one such irAE: mucositis. In this study, we evaluated the clinical characteristics, disease course, treatment, and outcomes of ICI-mediated mucositis. Methods: This was a retrospective, single-center study of patients who received ICI therapy and developed oral mucositis at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center from January 2009 to September 2019. Inclusion criteria included age ≥18 years, a diagnosis of oral mucositis and/or stomatitis based on ICD-9 and ICD-10 codes, and therapy using CTLA-4 or PD-1/L1 inhibitors alone or combined with other agents. Results: We identified 152 patients with a mean age of 60 years, 51% of whom were men. Of the sample patients, 73% had stage IV cancer, with melanoma the most common (28%). Median time from ICI initiation to mucositis was 91 days. The most common clinical presentation of mucositis was odynophagia and/or oral pain (89%), 91% developed CTCAE grade 1–2 mucositis, and 78% received anti–PD-1/L1 monotherapy. Compared with anti–PD-1/L1–based therapy, anti–CTLA-4–based therapy was more frequently associated with earlier onset of mucositis (73 vs 96 days; P=.077) and a lower rate of symptom resolution (76% vs 92%; P=.029); 24% of patients required immunosuppressive therapy, which was associated with longer symptom duration (84 vs 34 days; P=.002) and higher mucositis recurrence rate (61% vs 32%; P=.006). ICI interruption was associated with worse survival (P=.037). Mucositis recurrence, immunosuppressant use, and presence of other irAEs did not affect survival. Conclusions: For ICI-mediated mucositis, a diagnosis of exclusion has not been well recognized and is understudied. Although the clinical symptoms of mucositis are mostly mild, approximately 25% of patients require immunosuppression. Mucositis recurrence can occur in approximately 39% patients. Our results showed that ICI interruption compromises overall survival.