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David D. Chism

monoclonal antibody to cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and a negative regulator of T-cell activation, became the first agent to demonstrate an OS advantage and received FDA approval in 2011 for first-line treatment of melanoma. 15 Furthermore, the

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Matthew Zibelman and Anthony J. Olszanski

/L). Due to his history of prostate cancer, the patient was not eligible for a clinical trial and he was started on treatment with the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) inhibitor ipilimumab at 3 mg/kg. The patient tolerated the first

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Brandon A. Dyer, Dmitriy Zamarin, Ramez N. Eskandar, and Jyoti M. Mayadev

therapeutic approaches, such as the role of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and the immune checkpoint receptors cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4), PD-1, and PD-L1. The immunomodulatory effects of radiation therapy (RT) are also reviewed

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Shailender Bhatia and John A. Thompson

. Ipilimumab Ipilimumab is a human monoclonal antibody that binds the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen (CTLA)-4 molecule. CTLA-4 is expressed on activated T lymphocytes and counteracts positive costimulatory signals to these cells mediated through other T

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Andrew J Klink, Bruce Feinberg, Frank Xiaoqing Liu, Sama Ahsan, Damion Nero, and Bartosz Chmielowski

and medical enrollment ≥6 months pre and ≥3 months post 1L tx start. Per pt per month (PPPM) HCRU and costs were calculated by 1L tx drug class: PD-1, CTLA-4, CTLA-4+PD-1, mono-TT, combo-TT, and chemo. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) for HCRU were estimated

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John A. Thompson

targeted therapies, and their various combinations and sequences. “We are increasingly pulling from this list of preferred drugs rather than using the other category,” he said. Anti-CTLA4 Antibodies Reviewing the data supporting the anti-CTLA4 agent

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David Y. Oh, Alan P. Venook, and Lawrence Fong

; this would lead to expansion of effector and eventually memory (CD45RO+) T cells, which would then home to the tumor leading to tumor-specific cytotoxicity. Also shown are potential sites of action for several checkpoint inhibitors (in red). Anti-CTLA4

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Dung T. Le and Elizabeth M. Jaffee

targets cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) on activated T cells to block negative signals to the T cell. 1 - 7 Future successes are predicted as a result of blocking a second T-cell inhibitory signaling pathway, programmed death-1 (PD-1) and its

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Jake S. Jacob, Barbara E. Dutra, Victor Garcia-Rodriguez, Kavea Panneerselvam, Fiyinfoluwa O. Abraham, Fangwen Zou, Weijie Ma, Petros Grivas, John A. Thompson, Mehmet Altan, Isabella C. Glitza Oliva, Hao Chi Zhang, Anusha S. Thomas, and Yinghong Wang

cells. Since their development, such as inhibitors of CTLA-4, PD-1, and PD-L1, ICIs have been found to be effective treatment options for various solid tumors, including melanoma; lung, genitourinary, colorectal, and head and neck malignancies; and

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Michelle T. Ashworth and Adil Daud

lymphadenopathy, and a subxiphoid nodule. Because vemurafenib was by this time FDA-approved and readily available, it was immediately restarted. Treatment was also initiated with the anti-CTLA4 antibody ipilimumab, 3 mg/kg intravenously every 3 weeks for 4 doses