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Presenter: Robin Kate Kelley

selection of ICIs (either as monotherapy or in combination) have received accelerated FDA approvals in the second-line setting based on earlier levels of data in phase I/II studies: nivolumab, 13 pembrolizumab, 14 and nivolumab in combination with the CTLA

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Fangwen Zou, Hamzah Abu-Sbeih, Weijie Ma, Yuanzun Peng, Wei Qiao, Jianbo Wang, Amishi Y. Shah, Isabella C. Glitza Oliva, Sarina A. Piha-Paul, John A. Thompson, Hao Chi Zhang, Anusha S. Thomas, and Yinghong Wang

-mediated diarrhea and colitis (IMDC), the second most common irAE, limits the use of ICIs. 5 The incidence and severity of IMDC vary depending on the ICI regimen. Severe forms are attributed to anti–CTLA-4–based regimens, 6 and clinical symptoms range from self

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Reece J. Knippel and Cynthia L. Sears

. The gut microbiome is proposed as important to the success of immunotherapy, with most data limited to immune checkpoint inhibitors targeting the PD-1 axis and/or the CTLA-4 axis in melanoma. 3 However, across studies, consistent gut microbiome

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Dawn Goetz

(CTLA)-4 targeted therapy. Tremelimumab and ipilimumab are humanized anti–CTLA-4 antibodies currently under investigation in many solid tumors, including prostate cancer. 16 Immune-based therapies pose many challenges, particularly in designing

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Kelly N. Fitzgerald and Chung-Han Lee

inhibitors pembrolizumab and nivolumab and the CTLA-4 inhibitor ipilimumab. In the first-line setting, the combination of ipilimumab and nivolumab (ipi/nivo) is the only preferred treatment option for ccRCC using immunotherapy alone in the NCCN Guidelines

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Yifan Wang, Adeline Cuggia, Alain Pacis, Jean-Christian Boileau, Victoria A. Marcus, Zu-Hua Gao, George Chong, William D. Foulkes, and George Zogopoulos

which MMRd tumors evade immune-mediated killing is through upregulating immune checkpoints, such as PD-1 and CTLA-4. As a result, MMRd tumors are preferentially sensitive to immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), which reactivate the antitumor immune

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Presenter: Genevieve Boland

, hazard ratio; Ipi, ipilimumab; Nivo, nivolumab; NR, not reached; Pembro, pembrolizumab; RFS, relapse-free survival. In 2014, the CTLA-4 inhibitor ipilimumab became the first approved immunotherapy for the adjuvant treatment of melanoma, but its

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Presenters: Dara L. Aisner and Gregory J. Riely

mutation is chemotherapy + anti–PD-1 (nivolumab) + CTLA-4 (ipilimumab) for 2 cycles. 21 A randomized study of 719 patients found that chemotherapy + 2 cycles of nivolumab/ipilimumab improved OS regardless of PD-L1 status: median OS was 14 versus 10

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Rahel Demisse, Neha Damle, Edward Kim, Jun Gong, Marwan Fakih, Cathy Eng, Leslie Oesterich, Madison McKenny, Jingran Ji, James Liu, Ryan Louie, Kit Tam, Sepideh Gholami, Wissam Halabi, Arta Monjazeb, Farshid Dayyani, and May Cho

with chemotherapy led to significant response. We showed that neoadjuvant therapy using a single-agent PD-1 inhibitor, combined PD-1/CTLA-4 inhibitors, or PD-1 inhibitor plus FOLFOX combination can be a safe and effective treatment option in selected

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Jarushka Naidoo, Jiajia Zhang, Evan J. Lipson, Patrick M. Forde, Karthik Suresh, Kendall F. Moseley, Seema Mehta, Shawn G. Kwatra, Alyssa M. Parian, Amy K. Kim, John C. Probasco, Rosanne Rouf, Jennifer E. Thorne, Satish Shanbhag, Joanne Riemer, Ami A. Shah, Drew M. Pardoll, Clifton O. Bingham III, Julie R. Brahmer, and Laura C. Cappelli

immune checkpoint blockade . N Engl J Med 2018 ; 378 : 158 – 168 . 29320654 10.1056/NEJMra1703481 8. Gupta A , De Felice KM , Loftus EV Jr , . Systematic review: colitis associated with anti-CTLA-4 therapy . Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2015