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Sanam Loghavi, Mark J. Routbort, Keyur P. Patel, Rajyalakshmi Luthra, Wei-Lien Wang, Russell R. Broaddus, Michael A. Davies, and Alexander J. Lazar

therapy and monoclonal antibodies against CTLA-4, respectively, 44 – 46 and a subset of melanoma cases in which a specific genetic signature is linked to better response to ipilimumab. 47 In addition, increasing total mutational load of melanoma is

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Ganessan Kichenadasse, John O. Miners, Arduino A. Mangoni, Andrew Rowland, Ashley M. Hopkins, and Michael J. Sorich

Background Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) commonly target CTLA-4, PD-1, and PD-L1, which promote inhibitory signals on immune effector T cells against cancer cells. 1 Although ICIs have improved outcomes in several cancers, their use is also

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Talia Golan and Milind Javle

-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) inhibitors in a BRCA1 -deficient murine ovarian cancer model. With this combination therapy, effector T cells were increased in the peritoneal cavity. 47 Another DNA repair alteration associated with responsiveness to checkpoint

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John A. Thompson

The cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) inhibitor ipilimumab has showed an overall survival advantage compared with active controls in 2 major trials in patients with metastatic melanoma. 1 , 2 In a recent pooled analysis of long

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John A. Thompson

monoclonal antibody directed to the immune checkpoint receptor cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4) ipilimumab was approved by the FDA. Dr. Thompson briefly reviewed the long-term survival data with ipilimumab. 3 He added, “We are now seeing a tail in

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David R. Braxton

many mutations in the trunk of the phylogenetic tree showed a more durable response to PD-1 and CTLA-4 blockade in advanced non–small cell lung cancers and melanoma. 10 Understanding the clonal architecture of cancers and how cancers undergo genetic

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Ranjana H. Advani

of 96%. Finally, given the success of the BV/nivolumab combination, investigators are even exploring the addition of another checkpoint inhibitor, ipilimumab, which targets CTLA-4. Regarding the combination of multiple targeted agents, “in a very

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Timothy Lindsay and Sujana Movva

, anti–PD-L1, and anti–CTLA-4 antibodies have recently gained interest as potential therapeutic options in STS. Results have been mixed overall, with some response noted in UPS and dedifferentiated liposarcoma with the anti–PD-1 antibody pembrolizumab, 65

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Jessica S.W. Borgers, Richard P. Tobin, Robert J. Torphy, Victoria M. Vorwald, Robert J. Van Gulick, Carol M. Amato, Dasha T. Cogswell, Tugs-Saikhan Chimed, Kasey L. Couts, Adrie Van Bokhoven, Christopher D. Raeburn, Karl D. Lewis, Joshua Wisell, Martin D. McCarter, Rao R. Mushtaq, and William A. Robinson

targeted therapies and immunotherapies, including the immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) targeting CTLA-4, PD-1, and PD-L1, have improved survival rates for many patients with cancer, and in particular those with melanoma. 2 – 4 Because of the increasing

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Gregory L. Riely

in situ hybridization [FISH]) and protein-based (detected through immunohistochemistry [IHC]). PD-L1 Testing A variety of immune checkpoint inhibitors have become available, including those that target CTLA-4, PD-1, and PD-L1. “First-line use