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Kohei Shitara and Atsushi Ohtsu

; radiotherapy; immune checkpoint inhibitors, such as cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4), lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG-3), and T-cell immunoglobulin domain, mucin domain (Tim-3); inhibitors of suppressive factors, such as indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase

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Ganessan Kichenadasse, John O. Miners, Arduino A. Mangoni, Andrew Rowland, Ashley M. Hopkins, and Michael J. Sorich

Background Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) commonly target CTLA-4, PD-1, and PD-L1, which promote inhibitory signals on immune effector T cells against cancer cells. 1 Although ICIs have improved outcomes in several cancers, their use is also

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David R. Braxton

many mutations in the trunk of the phylogenetic tree showed a more durable response to PD-1 and CTLA-4 blockade in advanced non–small cell lung cancers and melanoma. 10 Understanding the clonal architecture of cancers and how cancers undergo genetic

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John A. Thompson

monoclonal antibody directed to the immune checkpoint receptor cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4) ipilimumab was approved by the FDA. Dr. Thompson briefly reviewed the long-term survival data with ipilimumab. 3 He added, “We are now seeing a tail in

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John A. Thompson

The cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) inhibitor ipilimumab has showed an overall survival advantage compared with active controls in 2 major trials in patients with metastatic melanoma. 1 , 2 In a recent pooled analysis of long

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Gregory L. Riely

in situ hybridization [FISH]) and protein-based (detected through immunohistochemistry [IHC]). PD-L1 Testing A variety of immune checkpoint inhibitors have become available, including those that target CTLA-4, PD-1, and PD-L1. “First-line use

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Jessica S.W. Borgers, Richard P. Tobin, Robert J. Torphy, Victoria M. Vorwald, Robert J. Van Gulick, Carol M. Amato, Dasha T. Cogswell, Tugs-Saikhan Chimed, Kasey L. Couts, Adrie Van Bokhoven, Christopher D. Raeburn, Karl D. Lewis, Joshua Wisell, Martin D. McCarter, Rao R. Mushtaq, and William A. Robinson

targeted therapies and immunotherapies, including the immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) targeting CTLA-4, PD-1, and PD-L1, have improved survival rates for many patients with cancer, and in particular those with melanoma. 2 – 4 Because of the increasing

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Timothy Lindsay and Sujana Movva

, anti–PD-L1, and anti–CTLA-4 antibodies have recently gained interest as potential therapeutic options in STS. Results have been mixed overall, with some response noted in UPS and dedifferentiated liposarcoma with the anti–PD-1 antibody pembrolizumab, 65

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Ranjana H. Advani

of 96%. Finally, given the success of the BV/nivolumab combination, investigators are even exploring the addition of another checkpoint inhibitor, ipilimumab, which targets CTLA-4. Regarding the combination of multiple targeted agents, “in a very

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Neelima N. Nallapaneni, Rajesh Mourya, Vijaya Raj Bhatt, Sakshi Malhotra, Apar Kishor Ganti, and Ketki K. Tendulkar

. Association of ipilimumab therapy for advanced melanoma with secondary adrenal insufficiency: a case series . Endocr Pract 2012 ; 18 : 351 – 355 . 14. Yang JC Hughes M Kammula U . Ipilimumab (anti-CTLA4 antibody) causes regression of metastatic