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Tanner M. Johanns, George Ansstas, and Sonika Dahiya

for these agents in primary CNS disease, and raise several important clinical considerations. Incidence Several large retrospective studies have attempted to estimate the frequency of BRAF mutations in pediatric and adult primary CNS tumors 11

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Daniel G. Coit, John A. Thompson, Robert Andtbacka, Christopher J. Anker, Christopher K. Bichakjian, William E. Carson III, Gregory A. Daniels, Adil Daud, Dominick DiMaio, Martin D. Fleming, Rene Gonzalez, Valerie Guild, Allan C. Halpern, F. Stephen Hodi Jr, Mark C. Kelley, Nikhil I. Khushalani, Ragini R. Kudchadkar, Julie R. Lange, Mary C. Martini, Anthony J. Olszanski, Merrick I. Ross, April Salama, Susan M. Swetter, Kenneth K. Tanabe, Vijay Trisal, Marshall M. Urist, Nicole R. McMillian, and Maria Ho

genetic alterations differs among melanoma subtypes. For example, melanoma on nonchronic sun damaged (non-CSD) areas was found to have the highest proportion of BRAF mutations (56%) compared with CSD, acral, and mucosal lesions (6%, 21%, and 3

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Rishi Agarwal, Jiang Wang, Keith Wilson, William Barrett, and John C. Morris

upper lobe (B) compared with prior CT (A). ATC has been shown to harbor RAS, RET, PTEN, PI3KCA, TP53 , and BRAF mutations. 14 – 17 Recently, frameshift insertions in PTEN and TP53 has also been reported in metastatic brain lesions and

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Javaughn Corey R. Gray, Jongho Kim, Michael Digianvittorio, Nancy K. Feeley, Paul J. Scheel, Stanley S. Siegelman, Elliot K. Fishman, and Steven P. Rowe

histiocyte inflammation, confirming the diagnosis. Due to the presence of histiocytes in biopsy specimens, BRAF mutation analysis was ordered, which was positive for the BRAF V600E mutation. Because of the disease severity, initial treatment with anakinra

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Presenter: Dustin A. Deming

all BRAF mutations are equal,” he said. The V600E mutation, which occurs in 8% to 10% of patients with CRC, accounts for 80% of BRAF mutations. Prognosis varies by mutation type: overall survival (OS) is poor for patients with V600E mutations, but

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Annette M. Lim, Graham R. Taylor, Andrew Fellowes, Laird Cameron, Belinda Lee, Rodney J. Hicks, Grant A. McArthur, Christopher Angel, Benjamin Solomon, and Danny Rischin

-year smoking history, the patient had no comorbidities. The patient declined both radical surgery and chemoradiotherapy. A core biopsy was performed to confirm the tumor histology and to determine BRAF mutation status. The thyroid biopsy showed a malignancy

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John A. Thompson

treatment for a patient with metastatic or unresectable disease, key factors include BRAF mutation status, tumor bulk, and tempo. An important consideration is whether the patient “has time for an immune response to develop,” he noted. Using Ipilimumab

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Wells A. Messersmith

those with KRAS -mutant disease. In addition, this study showed that BRAF mutation was a negative prognostic indicator. “Regardless of treatment, BRAF -mutant patients did worse,” stated Dr. Messersmith, “so this seems to be an aggressive subtype of

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Presenter: Ronald S. Go

mutations have been found in this population ( Table 1 ). Typically, in those with RDD, BRAF mutations do not occur; however, MAPK pathway gene mutations are common. “Notably, [in] approximately 10% to 20% of cases, the mutations remain unknown,” Dr. Go

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Tanner M. Johanns, Cole J. Ferguson, Patrick M. Grierson, Sonika Dahiya, and George Ansstas

neck (1.4%–3%). 12 , 13 However, it is important to note that BRAF mutations are enriched in some variants of GBM, such as epithelioid GBM, a rare but recently recognized variant of IDH wild-type GBMs. 14 Although epithelioid GBMs often lack the