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Jing Xi, Aabha Oza, Shana Thomas, Foluso Ademuyiwa, Katherine Weilbaecher, Rama Suresh, Ron Bose, Mathew Cherian, Leonel Hernandez-Aya, Ashley Frith, Lindsay Peterson, Jingqin Luo, Jairam Krishnamurthy, and Cynthia X. Ma

( Figure 1 ). Of these, 70 patients received chemotherapy and 32 received either hormone therapy with letrozole (n=10), fulvestrant (n=3), tamoxifen (n=2), or anastrozole (n=1), or hormone therapy in combination with targeted agents, including exemestane

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Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center of Northwestern University

Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in American women, with an estimated 214,640 cases and 41,430 deaths occurring in 2006. Estimating breast cancer risk for individual women is difficult, and most breast cancers are not attributable to risk factors other than female gender and increased age. Developing effective strategies for reducing breast cancer incidence is also difficult because few existing risk factors are modifiable and some potentially modifiable risk factors have social implications. Nevertheless, effective breast cancer risk reduction agents and strategies, such as tamoxifen, raloxifene, and risk reduction surgery, have been identified. These guidelines were developed to help women at increased risk for breast cancer and their physicians apply individualized strategies to reduce breast cancer risk.

For the most recent version of the guidelines, please visit

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Therese B. Bevers, John H. Ward, Banu K. Arun, Graham A. Colditz, Kenneth H. Cowan, Mary B. Daly, Judy E. Garber, Mary L. Gemignani, William J. Gradishar, Judith A. Jordan, Larissa A. Korde, Nicole Kounalakis, Helen Krontiras, Shicha Kumar, Allison Kurian, Christine Laronga, Rachel M. Layman, Loretta S. Loftus, Martin C. Mahoney, Sofia D. Merajver, Ingrid M. Meszoely, Joanne Mortimer, Lisa Newman, Elizabeth Pritchard, Sandhya Pruthi, Victoria Seewaldt, Michelle C. Specht, Kala Visvanathan, Anne Wallace, Mary Ann Bergman, and Rashmi Kumar

-year actuarial breast cancer risk as defined by the modified Gail model, which was used to identify women eligible for the NSABP Breast Cancer Prevention Trial (BCPT) 72 , 73 and the Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR) trial. 74 , 75 The Gail

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Therese B. Bevers

More than 15 years ago, tamoxifen was FDA-approved for breast cancer risk reduction in women at an increased risk of developing breast cancer. Since that time, raloxifene has also received FDA approval for this purpose. Both of these drugs halve

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Elizabeth J. Cathcart-Rake and Kathryn J. Ruddy

. Specifically, Charlson et al assessed the rates of initiation of aromatase inhibitors (AIs) versus tamoxifen in the treatment of postmenopausal women with breast cancer between 2006 and 2007. During this study period, AI therapy was recommended as part of

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Rodger J. Winn

References 1 Hughes KS Schnaper LA Berry D . Lumpectomy plus tamoxifen with or without radiation in women 70 years of age or older with early breast cancer . N Engl J Med 2004 ; 351 : 971 – 977 . 2 Morrow M White J Moughan

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Rondi M. Kauffmann, Leanne Goldstein, Emily Marcinkowski, George Somlo, Yuan Yuan, Philip H.G. Ituarte, Laura Kruper, Leslie Taylor, and Courtney Vito

/radiation, or mastectomy. 1 When breast conservation is used, the risk of local recurrence is higher than with mastectomy. 1 Antiestrogen (anti-e) therapy, in the form of either tamoxifen or an aromatase inhibitor (AI), may be used to reduce the risk of local

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William J. Gradishar, Benjamin O. Anderson, Sarah L. Blair, Harold J. Burstein, Amy Cyr, Anthony D. Elias, William B. Farrar, Andres Forero, Sharon Hermes Giordano, Lori J. Goldstein, Daniel F. Hayes, Clifford A. Hudis, Steven J. Isakoff, Britt-Marie E. Ljung, P. Kelly Marcom, Ingrid A. Mayer, Beryl McCormick, Robert S. Miller, Mark Pegram, Lori J. Pierce, Elizabeth C. Reed, Kilian E. Salerno, Lee S. Schwartzberg, Mary Lou Smith, Hatem Soliman, George Somlo, John H. Ward, Antonio C. Wolff, Richard Zellars, Dorothy A. Shead, and Rashmi Kumar

endocrine therapy in postmenopausal women with ER + breast cancer. These studies have generally compared the rates of objective response and breast-conserving surgery among treatment with tamoxifen, anastrozole, anastrozole plus tamoxifen, and letrozole

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Robert W. Carlson, D. Craig Allred, Benjamin O. Anderson, Harold J. Burstein, W. Bradford Carter, Stephen B. Edge, John K. Erban, William B. Farrar, Lori J. Goldstein, William J. Gradishar, Daniel F. Hayes, Clifford A. Hudis, Mohammad Jahanzeb, Krystyna Kiel, Britt-Marie Ljung, P. Kelly Marcom, Ingrid A. Mayer, Beryl McCormick, Lisle M. Nabell, Lori J. Pierce, Elizabeth C. Reed, Mary Lou Smith, George Somlo, Richard L. Theriault, Neal S. Topham, John H. Ward, Eric P. Winer, and Antonio C. Wolff

Gail MH Costantino JP Bryant J . Weighing the risks and benefits of tamoxifen treatment for preventing breast cancer . J Natl Cancer Inst 1999 ; 91 : 1829 – 1846 . 4 Dupont WD Page DL . Risk factors for breast cancer in women with