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Christopher Loiselle and Wui-Jin Koh

alter the arrangement of surrounding normal tissues. Tumor regression during treatment is a fortunate, though complex, reality and renders target definition based on a single preradiation CT scan less dependable. Serial MRI has been used to

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Donald A. Podoloff, Douglas W. Ball, Edgar Ben-Josef, Al B. Benson III, Steven J. Cohen, R. Edward Coleman, Dominique Delbeke, Maria Ho, David H. Ilson, Gregory P. Kalemkerian, Richard J. Lee, Jay S. Loeffler, Homer A. Macapinlac, Robert J. Morgan Jr., Barry Alan Siegel, Seema Singhal, Douglas S. Tyler, and Richard J. Wong

Franz M . Reirradiation of recurrent high-grade gliomas using amino acid PET (SPECT)/CT/MRI image fusion to determine gross tumor volume for stereotactic fractionated radiotherapy . Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2005 ; 63 : 511 – 519 . 49

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Talha Mehmood and Thomas J. Smith

place, patients will end up in the emergency department and be admitted. For oncologists, the message is, “don't save the tough conversations until the last hospitalization.” Rather, progression of disease on CT or MRI scans should trigger the question

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Louis Burt Nabors

-year-old man with a remote history of concussion experienced a new-onset partial seizure. Workup included a normal neurologic examination, and results of an MRI revealed glioma. Surgery was performed and a very clean resection was achieved. Based on

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William J. Gradishar, Benjamin O. Anderson, Sarah L. Blair, Harold J. Burstein, Amy Cyr, Anthony D. Elias, William B. Farrar, Andres Forero, Sharon Hermes Giordano, Lori J. Goldstein, Daniel F. Hayes, Clifford A. Hudis, Steven J. Isakoff, Britt-Marie E. Ljung, P. Kelly Marcom, Ingrid A. Mayer, Beryl McCormick, Robert S. Miller, Mark Pegram, Lori J. Pierce, Elizabeth C. Reed, Kilian E. Salerno, Lee S. Schwartzberg, Mary Lou Smith, Hatem Soliman, George Somlo, John H. Ward, Antonio C. Wolff, Richard Zellars, Dorothy A. Shead, and Rashmi Kumar

: Breast and Ovarian (to view the most recent version of these guidelines, visit ). Use of MRI during initial workup is optional and may be specially considered for mammographically occult tumors. MRI may be used to define the extent of cancer

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David Chu and Douglas G. Adler

diagnostic modalities include transabdominal ultrasound, helical CT, and MRI/magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP). Additional modalities that are both diagnostic and allow for therapeutic interventions include endoscopic ultrasound (EUS

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Leslie A. Fecher, Shrinivas Bishu, Robert J. Fontana, Salim S. Hayek, and Bryan J. Schneider

, nutritional supplements, or other potential hepatotoxins); serologic testing for viral hepatitis, muscle injury, or alcohol; and contrast-enhanced CT or MRI imaging of the liver in select patients ( Figure 3 ). Grade 3/4 liver injury occurs in 1% to 3% of

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J. Sybil Biermann, Douglas R. Adkins, Robert S. Benjamin, Brian Brigman, Warren Chow, Ernest U. Conrad III, Deborah A. Frassica, Frank J. Frassica, Suzanne George, Kenneth R. Hande, Francis J. Hornicek, G. Douglas Letson, Joel Mayerson, Sean V. McGarry, Brian McGrath, Carol D. Morris, Richard J. O'Donnell, R. Lor Randall, Victor M. Santana, Robert L. Satcher, Herrick J. Siegel, Neeta Somaiah, and Alan W. Yasko

. Standard staging workup for a suspected primary bone sarcoma should include chest imaging (chest radiograph or CT to detect pulmonary metastases), appropriate imaging of the primary site (plain radiographs, MRI for local staging, and/or CT scan), and bone

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Andrea K. Ng and Lois B. Travis

with HL who undergo radiotherapy in the modern treatment era will probably incur a lower risk for breast cancer. For survivors of HL, NCCN recommends mammogram/breast MRI screening 8 to 10 years after irradiation or by 40 years of age. The American

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Rui Fu, Rinku Sutradhar, Qing Li, Timothy P. Hanna, Kelvin K.W. Chan, Jonathan C. Irish, Natalie Coburn, Julie Hallet, Anna Dare, Simron Singh, Ambica Parmar, Craig C. Earle, Lauren Lapointe-Shaw, Monika K. Krzyzanowska, Antonio Finelli, Alexander V. Louie, Nicole J. Look Hong, Ian J. Witterick, Alyson Mahar, David Gomez, Daniel I. McIsaac, Danny Enepekides, David R. Urbach, and Antoine Eskander

for diagnostic imaging ranked low among Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries (15 CT and 10 MRI scanners per million population). 8 Decisions to fund these resources need to be informed by evidence regarding the