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Aatur D. Singhi, Siraj M. Ali, Jill Lacy, Andrew Hendifar, Khanh Nguyen, Jamie Koo, Jon H. Chung, Joel Greenbowe, Jeffrey S. Ross, Marina N. Nikiforova, Herbert J. Zeh, Inderpal S. Sarkaria, Anil Dasyam, and Nathan Bahary

cycles with subsequent chemotoxicity. The patient was switched to gemcitabine and nab-paclitaxel, but again experienced chemotoxicity, and progression of her liver metastases was seen on MRI. CGP of one of her metastases revealed an exon 6 EML4 –exon 20

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Christopher K. Bichakjian, Thomas Olencki, Murad Alam, James S. Andersen, Daniel Berg, Glen M. Bowen, Richard T. Cheney, Gregory A. Daniels, L. Frank Glass, Roy C. Grekin, Kenneth Grossman, Alan L. Ho, Karl D. Lewis, Daniel D. Lydiatt, William H. Morrison, Kishwer S. Nehal, Kelly C. Nelson, Paul Nghiem, Clifford S. Perlis, Ashok R. Shaha, Wade L. Thorstad, Malika Tuli, Marshall M. Urist, Timothy S. Wang, Andrew E. Werchniak, Sandra L. Wong, John A. Zic, Karin G. Hoffmann, Nicole R. McMillian, and Maria Ho

metastatic potential of this tumor. PET/CT scanning is gaining importance in diagnostic imaging of MCC and may be preferred in some instances. CT or MRI may be used if PET/CT is not available. In a review of 102 patients, PET/CT changed the stage and

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Ali Mokdad, Travis Browning, John C. Mansour, Hao Zhu, Amit G. Singal, and Adam C. Yopp

on characteristic radiographic imaging on dynamic contrasted-enhanced CT or MRI. Most of these diagnostic imaging studies are ordered by primary care physicians, who are at the beginning of the cancer care continuum and must not only discern an

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George D. Demetri, Scott Antonia, Robert S. Benjamin, Marilyn M. Bui, Ephraim S. Casper, Ernest U. Conrad III, Thomas F. DeLaney, Kristen N. Ganjoo, Martin J. Heslin, Raymond J. Hutchinson, John M. Kane III, G. Douglas Letson, Sean V. McGarry, Richard J. O'Donnell, I. Benjamin Paz, John D. Pfeifer, Raphael E. Pollock, R. Lor Randall, Richard F. Riedel, Karen D. Schupak, Herbert S. Schwartz, Katherine Thornton, Margaret von Mehren, and Jeffrey Wayne

and contiguity to nearby visceral structures and neurovascular landmarks. The propensities to spread to various locations vary among the subtypes of sarcoma. Therefore, imaging should be individualized based on the subtype of sarcoma. MRI with or

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Matthias Holdhoff, Maciej M. Mrugala, Christian Grommes, Thomas J. Kaley, Lode J. Swinnen, Carlos Perez-Heydrich, and Lakshmi Nayak

diagnosis of PCNSL requires comprehensive workup and staging. In addition to imaging of the brain and entire spine using MRI with contrast, cerebrospinal fluid analysis (CSF) and ophthalmologic examination to rule out ocular involvement are necessary. Brain

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Keli Turner, Sheelu Varghese, and H. Richard Alexander

CT scans and tissue biopsy with appropriate immunohistochemical staining. Although CT scan is the diagnostic imaging most commonly used, MRI using specific acquisition protocols may be increasingly used in the future. 20 The role of PET or PET/CT is

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Lyndsay J. Willmott, Daniele A. Sumner, and Bradley J. Monk

, because high tumor vascularity was associated with lower locoregional control and overall survival. Contrast-enhanced dynamic MRI (CD-MRI) is an imaging modality that can be used to measure vessel permeability, tumor cellular volume, and vascular volume

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Umang Shah and Tara Morrison

seizures. 2 Cerebral edema is easily visible on both CT and MRI. On CT, it causes an area of low signal, whereas on MRI it increases T2 and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) signal. Since their introduction in 1957 as a treatment for cerebral

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Gauri R. Varadhachary

mammography and ultrasound, bilateral breast MRI is a sensitive modality to evaluate for occult primary breast carcinoma. 12 – 14 Conventional workup for neck adenopathy presenting as squamous cell carcinoma CUP includes either CT or MRI and triple endoscopy

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Christopher K. Bichakjian, Thomas Olencki, Sumaira Z. Aasi, Murad Alam, James S. Andersen, Rachel Blitzblau, Glen M. Bowen, Carlo M. Contreras, Gregory A. Daniels, Roy Decker, Jeffrey M. Farma, Kris Fisher, Brian Gastman, Karthik Ghosh, Roy C. Grekin, Kenneth Grossman, Alan L. Ho, Karl D. Lewis, Manisha Loss, Daniel D. Lydiatt, Jane Messina, Kishwer S. Nehal, Paul Nghiem, Igor Puzanov, Chrysalyne D. Schmults, Ashok R. Shaha, Valencia Thomas, Yaohui G. Xu, John A. Zic, Karin G. Hoffmann, and Anita M. Engh

debated in the literature. A number of retrospective analyses have reported data on detection and appearance of MCC tumors using various imaging methods, including conventional x-ray, 12 , 67 , 117 CT, 12 , 117 – 120 ultrasound, 12 , 120 , 121 MRI, 67