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Lara Franziska Stolzenbach, Giuseppe Rosiello, Angela Pecoraro, Carlotta Palumbo, Stefano Luzzago, Marina Deuker, Zhe Tian, Anne-Sophie Knipper, Raisa Pompe, Kevin C. Zorn, Shahrokh F. Shariat, Felix K.H. Chun, Markus Graefen, Fred Saad, and Pierre I. Karakiewicz

profile. Fourth, we could not account for the use of additional staging tools, such as MRI. It is possible that the rates of prostate MRI have increased over time and approximate MRI use in prospective trials. However, it is unlikely that the follow-up of

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Zhi Ven Fong and Cristina R. Ferrone

underwent an R0 surgical resection. To improve the ability of imaging to determine response, FDG PET/CT, FDG PET/MRI, and radiomics are being explored by multiple groups. A recent study from the Medical College of Wisconsin indicated that patients with

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NCCN Guidelines Insights: Rectal Cancer, Version 6.2020

Featured Updates to the NCCN Guidelines

Al B. Benson III, Alan P. Venook, Mahmoud M. Al-Hawary, Mustafa A. Arain, Yi-Jen Chen, Kristen K. Ciombor, Stacey Cohen, Harry S. Cooper, Dustin Deming, Ignacio Garrido-Laguna, Jean L. Grem, Andrew Gunn, Sarah Hoffe, Joleen Hubbard, Steven Hunt, Natalie Kirilcuk, Smitha Krishnamurthi, Wells A. Messersmith, Jeffrey Meyerhardt, Eric D. Miller, Mary F. Mulcahy, Steven Nurkin, Michael J. Overman, Aparna Parikh, Hitendra Patel, Katrina Pedersen, Leonard Saltz, Charles Schneider, David Shibata, John M. Skibber, Constantinos T. Sofocleous, Elena M. Stoffel, Eden Stotsky-Himelfarb, Christopher G. Willett, Alyse Johnson-Chilla, and Lisa A. Gurski

body habitus (ie, a measured distance of 12 cm from the anal verge would yield very different anatomic features in a patient who is 4 feet tall compared with one who is 7 feet tall). Furthermore, the panel considers MRI to be a superior tool compared

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Thomas A. D’Amico, Lindsey A.M. Bandini, Alan Balch, Al B. Benson III, Stephen B. Edge, C. Lyn Fitzgerald, Robert J. Green, Wui-Jin Koh, Michael Kolodziej, Shaji Kumar, Neal J. Meropol, James L. Mohler, David Pfister, Ronald S. Walters, and Robert W. Carlson

intravenous and oral contrast to maximize detection of potential metastatic disease. An alternative, if an abdominal or pelvic CT is inadequate or if CT with intravenous contrast is contraindicated, is abdominal/pelvic MRI with contrast plus a noncontrast

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Peter E. Clark, Philippe E. Spiess, Neeraj Agarwal, Matthew C. Biagioli, Mario A. Eisenberger, Richard E. Greenberg, Harry W. Herr, Brant A. Inman, Deborah A. Kuban, Timothy M. Kuzel, Subodh M. Lele, Jeff Michalski, Lance Pagliaro, Sumanta K. Pal, Anthony Patterson, Elizabeth R. Plimack, Kamal S. Pohar, Michael P. Porter, Jerome P. Richie, Wade J. Sexton, William U. Shipley, Eric J. Small, Donald L. Trump, Geoffrey Wile, Timothy G. Wilson, Mary Dwyer, and Maria Ho

patient for regional lymph node involvement. 27 MRI or ultrasound can be used to evaluate the depth of tumor invasion. 28 For the evaluation of lymph nodes, see “Management of Regional Lymph Nodes,” this page. NCCN Recommendations Tis or Ta: For

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Al B. Benson, Michael I. D’Angelica, Daniel E. Abbott, Daniel A. Anaya, Robert Anders, Chandrakanth Are, Melinda Bachini, Mitesh Borad, Daniel Brown, Adam Burgoyne, Prabhleen Chahal, Daniel T. Chang, Jordan Cloyd, Anne M. Covey, Evan S. Glazer, Lipika Goyal, William G. Hawkins, Renuka Iyer, Rojymon Jacob, R. Kate Kelley, Robin Kim, Matthew Levine, Manisha Palta, James O. Park, Steven Raman, Sanjay Reddy, Vaibhav Sahai, Tracey Schefter, Gagandeep Singh, Stacey Stein, Jean-Nicolas Vauthey, Alan P. Venook, Adam Yopp, Nicole R. McMillian, Cindy Hochstetler, and Susan D. Darlow

imaging (abdominal multiphasic CT or MRI) is recommended in the setting of a rising serum AFP or following identification of a liver mass nodule ≥10 mm on US, based on AASLD and Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) guidelines. 3 , 30 It is

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Robert W. Carlson, D. Craig Allred, Benjamin O. Anderson, Harold J. Burstein, W. Bradford Carter, Stephen B. Edge, John K. Erban, William B. Farrar, Andres Forero, Sharon Hermes Giordano, Lori J. Goldstein, William J. Gradishar, Daniel F. Hayes, Clifford A. Hudis, Britt-Marie Ljung, David A. Mankoff, P. Kelly Marcom, Ingrid A. Mayer, Beryl McCormick, Lori J. Pierce, Elizabeth C. Reed, Jasgit Sachdev, Mary Lou Smith, George Somlo, John H. Ward, Antonio C. Wolff, and Richard Zellars

considered to be at high risk of hereditary breast cancer as defined by the NCCN Guidelines for Genetic/Familial High-Risk Assessment: Breast and Ovarian (to view the most recent version of these guidelines, visit the NCCN Web site at www.NCCN.org ). MRI

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Louis Burt Nabors, Jana Portnow, Manmeet Ahluwalia, Joachim Baehring, Henry Brem, Steven Brem, Nicholas Butowski, Jian L. Campian, Stephen W. Clark, Andrew J. Fabiano, Peter Forsyth, Jona Hattangadi-Gluth, Matthias Holdhoff, Craig Horbinski, Larry Junck, Thomas Kaley, Priya Kumthekar, Jay S. Loeffler, Maciej M. Mrugala, Seema Nagpal, Manjari Pandey, Ian Parney, Katherine Peters, Vinay K. Puduvalli, Ian Robins, Jason Rockhill, Chad Rusthoven, Nicole Shonka, Dennis C. Shrieve, Lode J. Swinnen, Stephanie Weiss, Patrick Yung Wen, Nicole E. Willmarth, Mary Anne Bergman, and Susan D. Darlow

should be documented with a T2-weighted or FLAIR MRI scan within 48 hours after surgery. Patients may be observed following surgery. If incomplete resection or biopsy, or if surgery was not feasible, then RT may be considered if there is significant tumor

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Robert W. Carlson, D. Craig Allred, Benjamin O. Anderson, Harold J. Burstein, W. Bradford Carter, Stephen B. Edge, John K. Erban, William B. Farrar, Andres Forero, Sharon Hermes Giordano, Lori J. Goldstein, William J. Gradishar, Daniel F. Hayes, Clifford A. Hudis, Britt-Marie Ljung, P. Kelly Marcom, Ingrid A. Mayer, Beryl McCormick, Lori J. Pierce, Elizabeth C. Reed, Mary Lou Smith, George Somlo, Neal S. Topham, John H. Ward, Eric P. Winer, and Antonio C. Wolff

the full thickness of the epidermis and at least a portion of any clinically involved nipple areola complex. When biopsy of the nipple areola complex is positive for Paget's disease, breast MRI is recommended to define the extent of disease and

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Wui-Jin Koh, Nadeem R. Abu-Rustum, Sarah Bean, Kristin Bradley, Susana M. Campos, Kathleen R. Cho, Hye Sook Chon, Christina Chu, Rachel Clark, David Cohn, Marta Ann Crispens, Shari Damast, Oliver Dorigo, Patricia J. Eifel, Christine M. Fisher, Peter Frederick, David K. Gaffney, Ernest Han, Warner K. Huh, John R. Lurain III, Andrea Mariani, David Mutch, Christa Nagel, Larissa Nekhlyudov, Amanda Nickles Fader, Steven W. Remmenga, R. Kevin Reynolds, Todd Tillmanns, Stefanie Ueda, Emily Wyse, Catheryn M. Yashar, Nicole R. McMillian, and Jillian L. Scavone

proctosigmoidoscopy. More-complex radiologic and surgical staging procedures are not addressed in the FIGO classification. In the United States, however, CT, MRI, combined PET/CT, and surgical staging are often used to guide treatment options and design. 1 – 5 The