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patients with cancer by outlining all imaging procedures recommended in the NCCN Guidelines, including radiographs, CT scans, MRI, functional nuclear medicine imaging (PET, SPECT), and ultrasound. NCCN is recognized by Centers for Medicare & Medicaid

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Robert Torrey, Philippe E. Spiess, Sumanta K. Pal, and David Josephson

imaging modality for diagnosing RCC and evaluating the extent and stage of disease. MDCT has been associated with 91% accuracy for tumor staging and up to 100% accuracy for assessment of venous tumor invasion. 2 With improvements in CT technology, MRI

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David G. Pfister, Sharon Spencer, David Adelstein, Douglas Adkins, Yoshimi Anzai, David M. Brizel, Justine Y. Bruce, Paul M. Busse, Jimmy J. Caudell, Anthony J. Cmelak, A. Dimitrios Colevas, David W. Eisele, Moon Fenton, Robert L. Foote, Thomas Galloway, Maura L. Gillison, Robert I. Haddad, Wesley L. Hicks Jr., Ying J. Hitchcock, Antonio Jimeno, Debra Leizman, Ellie Maghami, Loren K. Mell, Bharat B. Mittal, Harlan A. Pinto, John A. Ridge, James W. Rocco, Cristina P. Rodriguez, Jatin P. Shah, Randal S. Weber, Gregory Weinstein, Matthew Witek, Frank Worden, Sue S. Yom, Weining Zhen, Jennifer L. Burns, and Susan D. Darlow

. Initial imaging of the primary site is done with CT and/or MRI. MRI is generally preferred over CT in patients with cranial nerve symptoms or to evaluate cranial nerve involvement or tumors that encroach on the skull base. CT, conversely, is complementary

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Robert J. Motzer, Eric Jonasch, Neeraj Agarwal, Sam Bhayani, William P. Bro, Sam S. Chang, Toni K. Choueiri, Brian A. Costello, Ithaar H. Derweesh, Mayer Fishman, Thomas H. Gallagher, John L. Gore, Steven L. Hancock, Michael R. Harrison, Won Kim, Christos Kyriakopoulos, Chad LaGrange, Elaine T. Lam, Clayton Lau, M. Dror Michaelson, Thomas Olencki, Phillip M. Pierorazio, Elizabeth R. Plimack, Bruce G. Redman, Brian Shuch, Brad Somer, Guru Sonpavde, Jeffrey Sosman, Mary Dwyer, and Rashmi Kumar

CT is more accurate than chest radiograph for chest staging. 21 – 23 Abdominal MRI is used to evaluate the inferior vena cava if tumor involvement is suspected, or it can be used instead of CT for detecting renal masses and for staging when contrast

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Richard L. Theriault, J. Sybil Biermann, Elizabeth Brown, Adam Brufsky, Laurence Demers, Ravinder K. Grewal, Theresa Guise, Rebecca Jackson, Kevin McEnery, Donald Podoloff, Peter Ravdin, Charles L. Shapiro, Matthew Smith, and Catherine H. Van Poznak

resonance imaging (MRI). Future imaging options include multislice CT scanners and positron emission tomography (PET)-CT fusion studies, which may be particularly helpful in distinguishing compression fractures from pathologic fractures. Biomarkers in Bone

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Al B. Benson III, Tanios Bekaii-Saab, Emily Chan, Yi-Jen Chen, Michael A. Choti, Harry S. Cooper, Paul F. Engstrom, Peter C. Enzinger, Marwan G. Fakih, Charles S. Fuchs, Jean L. Grem, Steven Hunt, Lucille A. Leong, Edward Lin, Michael G. Martin, Kilian Salerno May, Mary F. Mulcahy, Kate Murphy, Eric Rohren, David P. Ryan, Leonard Saltz, Sunil Sharma, David Shibata, John M. Skibber, William Small Jr, Constantinos T. Sofocleous, Alan P. Venook, Christopher G. Willett, Deborah A. Freedman-Cass, and Kristina M. Gregory

and MRI, enables preoperative assessments of depth of tumor penetration and the presence of local lymph nodal metastases. 78 The consensus of the panel is that a PET scan is not routinely indicated. Additional information regarding the extent of

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Ronald S. Go, Eric Jacobsen, Robert Baiocchi, Ilia Buhtoiarov, Erin B. Butler, Patrick K. Campbell, Don W. Coulter, Eli Diamond, Aron Flagg, Aaron M. Goodman, Gaurav Goyal, Dita Gratzinger, Paul C. Hendrie, Meghan Higman, Michael D. Hogarty, Filip Janku, Reem Karmali, David Morgan, Anne C. Raldow, Alexandra Stefanovic, Srinivas K. Tantravahi, Kelly Walkovich, Ling Zhang, Mary Anne Bergman, and Susan D. Darlow

’s LCH is single or multisystem is unknown in the absence of staging. Therefore, whole-body PET/CT should be considered for patients with suspected multisystem disease. Abnormal brain MRI is often observed in LCH, even in the absence of neurologic

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Filipa Lynce and Claudine Isaacs

-reducing mastectomies. 5 , 6 Additionally, risk-reducing surgeries have been shown to be the most cost-effective measures. Using costs, life-years (LY), and quality-adjusted life-years (QALY) as outcomes, a study that compared preventive surgery, chemoprevention, MRI

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Stephen Pereira

(eg, ultrasonography, CT, MRI), explained Dr. Pereira. A predictable zone of biologic change is present around the fibers, he added, with no unacceptable effects on surrounding tissues. Bown et al 7 performed a phase I study of mTH-PC-mediated PDT

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Joseph G. Rajendran and Benjamin E. Greer

. 15. Narayan K Hicks RJ Jobling T . A comparison of MRI and PET scanning in surgically staged loco-regionally advanced cervical cancer: potential impact on treatment . Int J Gynecol Cancer 2001 ; 11 : 263 – 271 . 16. Grigsby PW