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Lyndsay J. Willmott, Daniele A. Sumner, and Bradley J. Monk

treatment protocol is surgical resection, typically with radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection. Cure rates are good in this instance. However, more advanced disease is a greater challenge to treat effectively. The American Cancer Society

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Christopher J. Long, Sameer Mittal, and Thomas F. Kolon

. Another technical concern regarding PN that is not present with RN is the role of surgical margins. It is imperative that intraoperative margins are negative from the tumor resection bed. A lymph node dissection is imperative, as with any approach to tumor

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Mathias Kvist Mejdahl, Birgitte Goldschmidt Mertz, Pernille Envold Bidstrup, and Kenneth Geving Andersen

, 35 receiving surgery with mastectomy or breast-conserving surgery (BCS), and sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) or axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) of levels I through II. Adjuvant treatment was according to risk profile, with chemotherapy

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David J. Worhunsky, Yifei Ma, Yulia Zak, George A. Poultsides, Jeffrey A. Norton, Kim F. Rhoads, and Brendan C. Visser

Although multiple quality indicators have been studied for the management of gastric cancer, notably surgical technique and the extent of lymph node dissection, 12 – 14 limited data exist regarding implementation and effectiveness of clinical guidelines

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Philippe E. Spiess, Neeraj Agarwal, Rick Bangs, Stephen A. Boorjian, Mark K. Buyyounouski, Peter E. Clark, Tracy M. Downs, Jason A. Efstathiou, Thomas W. Flaig, Terence Friedlander, Richard E. Greenberg, Khurshid A. Guru, Noah Hahn, Harry W. Herr, Christopher Hoimes, Brant A. Inman, Masahito Jimbo, A. Karim Kader, Subodh M. Lele, Joshua J. Meeks, Jeff Michalski, Jeffrey S. Montgomery, Lance C. Pagliaro, Sumanta K. Pal, Anthony Patterson, Elizabeth R. Plimack, Kamal S. Pohar, Michael P. Porter, Mark A. Preston, Wade J. Sexton, Arlene O. Siefker-Radtke, Guru Sonpavde, Jonathan Tward, Geoffrey Wile, Mary A. Dwyer, and Lisa A. Gurski

, even when combined with cross-sectional imaging, and understaging is frequently encountered. A retrospective study of 778 patients with bladder cancer found that 42% were upstaged following cystectomy. 11 A pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) is

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William J. Gradishar, Benjamin O. Anderson, Ron Balassanian, Sarah L. Blair, Harold J. Burstein, Amy Cyr, Anthony D. Elias, William B. Farrar, Andres Forero, Sharon Hermes Giordano, Matthew Goetz, Lori J. Goldstein, Clifford A. Hudis, Steven J. Isakoff, P. Kelly Marcom, Ingrid A. Mayer, Beryl McCormick, Meena Moran, Sameer A. Patel, Lori J. Pierce, Elizabeth C. Reed, Kilian E. Salerno, Lee S. Schwartzberg, Karen Lisa Smith, Mary Lou Smith, Hatem Soliman, George Somlo, Melinda Telli, John H. Ward, Dorothy A. Shead, and Rashmi Kumar

only if gross disease is apparent in the level II or III nodes. In the absence of gross disease in level II nodes, lymph node dissection should include tissue inferior to the axillary vein from the latissimus dorsi muscle laterally to the medial border

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Robert W. Carlson, D. Craig Allred, Benjamin O. Anderson, Harold J. Burstein, W. Bradford Carter, Stephen B. Edge, John K. Erban, William B. Farrar, Andres Forero, Sharon Hermes Giordano, Lori J. Goldstein, William J. Gradishar, Daniel F. Hayes, Clifford A. Hudis, Britt-Marie Ljung, P. Kelly Marcom, Ingrid A. Mayer, Beryl McCormick, Lori J. Pierce, Elizabeth C. Reed, Mary Lou Smith, George Somlo, Neal S. Topham, John H. Ward, Eric P. Winer, and Antonio C. Wolff

without lymph node dissection. For most patients with more limited disease in whom negative margins are achieved with the initial excision or with reexcision, breast-conserving therapy or total mastectomy are appropriate treatment options. Although

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Wui-Jin Koh, Benjamin E. Greer, Nadeem R. Abu-Rustum, Susana M. Campos, Kathleen R. Cho, Hye Sook Chon, Christina Chu, David Cohn, Marta Ann Crispens, Don S. Dizon, Oliver Dorigo, Patricia J. Eifel, Christine M. Fisher, Peter Frederick, David K. Gaffney, Ernest Han, Susan Higgins, Warner K. Huh, John R. Lurain III, Andrea Mariani, David Mutch, Christa Nagel, Larissa Nekhlyudov, Amanda Nickles Fader, Steven W. Remmenga, R. Kevin Reynolds, Todd Tillmanns, Stefanie Ueda, Fidel A. Valea, Emily Wyse, Catheryn M. Yashar, Nicole McMillian, and Jillian Scavone

conservative primary tumor resection and regional lymph node management for early-stage disease. 43 The preferred surgical approach evolved towards vulvar conservation with separate incisions for lymph node dissection in patients who were clinically node

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David S. Ettinger, Mark Agulnik, Justin M. M. Cates, Mihaela Cristea, Crystal S. Denlinger, Keith D. Eaton, Panagiotis M. Fidias, David Gierada, Jon P. Gockerman, Charles R. Handorf, Renuka Iyer, Renato Lenzi, John Phay, Asif Rashid, Leonard Saltz, Lawrence N. Shulman, Jeffrey B. Smerage, Gauri R. Varadhachary, Jonathan S. Zager, and Weining (Ken) Zhen

used as a second- or third-line treatment. 85 Radiation Therapy Radiation therapy is a treatment option for a variety of localized tumors, particularly as follow-up treatment after lymph node dissection for the involvement of axillary or

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James L. Mohler, Philip W. Kantoff, Andrew J. Armstrong, Robert R. Bahnson, Michael Cohen, Anthony Victor D’Amico, James A. Eastham, Charles A. Enke, Thomas A. Farrington, Celestia S. Higano, Eric Mark Horwitz, Christopher J. Kane, Mark H. Kawachi, Michael Kuettel, Timothy M. Kuzel, Richard J. Lee, Arnold W. Malcolm, David Miller, Elizabeth R. Plimack, Julio M. Pow-Sang, David Raben, Sylvia Richey, Mack Roach III, Eric Rohren, Stan Rosenfeld, Edward Schaeffer, Eric J. Small, Guru Sonpavde, Sandy Srinivas, Cy Stein, Seth A. Strope, Jonathan Tward, Dorothy A. Shead, and Maria Ho

treatment decision-making for men contemplating active surveillance, 10 radical prostatectomy, 11 - 13 neurovascular bundle preservation, 14 - 16 or omission of pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) during radical prostatectomy, 17 brachytherapy, 11 , 18