This review focuses on the data supporting the use of myeloid growth factors (MGFs) in patients being treated for acute myeloid leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia, and hairy cell leukemia, for which neutropenia is a common complication of treatment. However, due to the lack of randomized trial data or conflicting results of clinical studies, comprehensive guidelines have been difficult to formulate. Moreover, to date, these diagnoses have not been addressed in the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for MGFs. However, in most cases, the general principles have been included in the applicable NCCN Guidelines for each individual cancer site.
Jacqueline N. Poston and Pamela S. Becker
Andrew J. Armstrong
Most of the updates in the 2015 NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Prostate Cancer center on the systemic therapy front, with a host of newer agents in the mix. At the NCCN 20th Annual Conference, Dr. Andrew J. Armstrong discussed some of the key developments in metastatic castration-resistant and castration-sensitive prostate cancer, particularly the conflicting results on repurposing docetaxel in castration-sensitive disease, the specific population who may experience greater survival benefit from immunotherapy in castration-resistant disease, updated data on the use of androgen receptor and biosynthesis inhibitors, and the emerging role of AR-V7 (androgen-receptor splice variant 7 messenger RNA) as a biomarker of treatment response.
James L. Mohler, Andrew J. Armstrong, Robert R. Bahnson, Barry Boston, J. Erik Busby, Anthony Victor D’Amico, James A. Eastham, Charles A. Enke, Thomas Farrington, Celestia S. Higano, Eric Mark Horwitz, Philip W. Kantoff, Mark H. Kawachi, Michael Kuettel, Richard J. Lee, Gary R. MacVicar, Arnold W. Malcolm, David Miller, Elizabeth R. Plimack, Julio M. Pow-Sang, Mack Roach III, Eric Rohren, Stan Rosenfeld, Sandy Srinivas, Seth A. Strope, Jonathan Tward, Przemyslaw Twardowski, Patrick C. Walsh, Maria Ho, and Dorothy A. Shead
The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Prostate Cancer provide multidisciplinary recommendations for the clinical management of patients with prostate cancer. These NCCN Guidelines Insights highlight notable recent updates. Abiraterone acetate is a first-in-class hormonal agent that represents a new standard of care for patients with metastatic castration-recurrent prostate cancer who have previously received docetaxel (category 1 recommendation). Abiraterone acetate also received category 2B recommendations in the prechemotherapy setting for asymptomatic patients or symptomatic patients who are not candidates for docetaxel. The NCCN Prostate Cancer Panel also added new indications for existing agents, including the option of sipuleucel-T as second-line therapy. In addition, brachytherapy in combination with external beam radiation therapy with or without androgen deprivation therapy is now an alternative for patients with high-risk localized tumors or locally advanced disease.
Andrew D. Zelenetz
During his presentation at the NCCN 19th Annual Conference, Dr. Andrew D. Zelenetz reviewed the updates to the 2014 NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphomas. Dr. Zelenetz first discussed the updates for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), focusing primarily on the emergence of MYC-positive DLBCL; the limited role of imaging in early-stage disease; new treatment options; the challenge of tumor heterogeneity; and the impact of cell of origin in the selection of future therapies. Then, on behalf of Dr. Steven Horwitz, Dr. Zelenetz presented the new guidelines for primary cutaneous CD30+ T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders and T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukemia.
Peter R. Carroll and Andrew J. Vickers
Few clinical issues have polarized the oncology community as much as screening for prostate cancer, with advocates of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing vocal on one side and skeptics just as vocal on the other. At the NCCN 19th Annual Conference, Dr. Peter R. Carroll and Dr. Andrew J. Vickers tackled the controversy surrounding early detection of prostate cancer, focusing attention on the randomized trial results at the heart of the matter; over-detection (the Achilles’ heel of screening); and the rationale behind the new, streamlined 2014 NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Prostate Cancer Early Detection, which emphasize selective early detection and treatment and are tightly aligned with the NCCN Guidelines for Prostate Cancer.
Neel K. Gupta and Charalambos Andreadis
The treatment of older or medically frail patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) presents unique challenges to clinicians attempting to maximize efficacy while avoiding significant toxicity. This case report presents a 75-year-old man with Rai stage II CLL complicated by massive splenomegaly, high-risk cytogenetics, and intolerance to first-line therapy recommended by the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphomas. A brief summary of his disease and treatment course accompanies a discussion of the special challenges associated with treating this patient population. In addition, emerging novel and targeted therapies, including next-generation monoclonal antibodies and small molecule inhibitors, are reviewed in the broader context of evolving standards of care and the NCCN Guidelines.
Featured Updates to the NCCN Guidelines
Al B. Benson III, Tanios Bekaii-Saab, Emily Chan, Yi-Jen Chen, Michael A. Choti, Harry S. Cooper, Paul F. Engstrom, Peter C. Enzinger, Marwan G. Fakih, Moon J. Fenton, Charles S. Fuchs, Jean L. Grem, Steven Hunt, Ahmed Kamel, Lucille A. Leong, Edward Lin, Kilian Salerno May, Mary F. Mulcahy, Kate Murphy, Eric Rohren, David P. Ryan, Leonard Saltz, Sunil Sharma, David Shibata, John M. Skibber, William Small Jr, Constantinos T. Sofocleous, Alan P. Venook, Christopher G. Willett, Kristina M. Gregory, and Deborah A. Freedman-Cass
The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Colon Cancer begin with the clinical presentation of the patient to the primary care physician or gastroenterologist and address diagnosis, pathologic staging, surgical management, perioperative treatment, patient surveillance, management of recurrent and metastatic disease, and survivorship. The NCCN Colon Cancer Panel meets annually to review comments from reviewers within their institutions and to reevaluate and update their recommendations. In addition, the panel has interim conferences as new data necessitate. These NCCN Guidelines Insights summarize the NCCN Colon Cancer Panel's discussions surrounding metastatic colorectal cancer for the 2013 update of the guidelines. Importantly, changes were made to the continuum of care for patients with advanced or metastatic disease, including new drugs and an additional line of therapy.
Richard T. Hoppe, Ranjana H. Advani, Weiyun Z. Ai, Richard F. Ambinder, Patricia Aoun, Celeste M. Bello, Philip J. Bierman, Kristie A. Blum, Robert Chen, Bouthaina Dabaja, Ysabel Duron, Andres Forero, Leo I. Gordon, Francisco J. Hernandez-Ilizaliturri, Ephraim P. Hochberg, David G. Maloney, David Mansur, Peter M. Mauch, Monika Metzger, Joseph O. Moore, David Morgan, Craig H. Moskowitz, Matthew Poppe, Barbara Pro, Jane N. Winter, Joachim Yahalom, and Hema Sundar
The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Hodgkin Lymphoma (HL) include the clinical management of classical HL and lymphocyte-predominant HL (LPHL). Major changes have been incorporated into these guidelines since their inception. In the 2012 NCCN Guidelines for HL, PET scans are not recommended for interim restaging of patients with stage I to II favorable disease. After reevaluating the available evidence on the use of interim PET imaging, the panel recommends the use of diagnostic CT scan of involved sites for interim restaging after completion of chemotherapy for this group of patients. Maintenance rituximab for 2 years is included as an option for patients with stage IB to IIB or stage III to IV LPHL treated with rituximab alone in the first-line setting. Brentuximab vedotin is included as an option for patients with progressive disease or relapsed disease after second-line chemotherapy or high-dose therapy with autologous stem cell rescue.
Robert J. Motzer, Eric Jonasch, Neeraj Agarwal, Clair Beard, Sam Bhayani, Graeme B. Bolger, Sam S. Chang, Toni K. Choueiri, Brian A. Costello, Ithaar H. Derweesh, Shilpa Gupta, Steven L. Hancock, Jenny J. Kim, Timothy M. Kuzel, Elaine T. Lam, Clayton Lau, Ellis G. Levine, Daniel W. Lin, M. Dror Michaelson, Thomas Olencki, Roberto Pili, Elizabeth R. Plimack, Edward N. Rampersaud, Bruce G. Redman, Charles J. Ryan, Joel Sheinfeld, Brian Shuch, Kanishka Sircar, Brad Somer, Richard B. Wilder, Mary Dwyer, and Rashmi Kumar
Germ cell tumors (GCTs) account for 95% of testicular cancers. Testicular GCTs constitute the most common solid tumor in men between the ages of 20 and 34 years, and the incidence of testicular GCTs has been increasing in the past 2 decades. Testicular GCTs are classified into 2 broad groups—pure seminoma and nonseminoma—which are treated differently. Pure seminomas, unlike nonseminomas, are more likely to be localized to the testis at presentation. Nonseminoma is the more clinically aggressive tumor associated with elevated serum concentrations of alphafetoprotein (AFP). The diagnosis of a seminoma is restricted to pure seminoma histology and a normal serum concentration of AFP. When both seminoma and elements of a nonseminoma are present, management follows that for a nonseminoma. The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Testicular Cancer outline the diagnosis, workup, risk assessment, treatment, and follow-up schedules for patients with both pure seminoma and nonseminoma.
George Handzo, Jill M. Bowden, and Stephen King
Spiritual care and chaplaincy have been part of the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Distress Management since the first meeting of the panel in 1997, possibly the first time this degree of spiritual care and chaplaincy care integration occurred in cancer care. Since that time, the chaplaincy care section of the guidelines, especially chaplain assessment categories derived from a spiritual care assessment, have provided a major resource for healthcare chaplaincy and have served as a model for integrating chaplaincy into the overall team practice of healthcare. However, this section of the NCCN Guidelines has not been substantially updated since it was originally written. During those 20 years, the practice of healthcare chaplaincy and the research that supports it have grown substantially. In the last year, at the request of the panel, we have updated the chaplaincy care section to fully integrate recently published evidence in spiritual care in healthcare, adding more value to this important set of guidelines. Those updates appear in the 2019 version of the NCCN Guidelines. This article discusses the history of chaplaincy involvement in the NCCN Guidelines for Distress Management and the precedent it set for the integration of chaplaincy in other efforts that followed. Integration of this section of the Guidelines into the spiritual care practice at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center is presented as an example of how these guidelines can be put into practice to improve patient care. Finally, a summary of the recent research by Drs. Kenneth Pargament and Julie Exline is presented as the foundation for the revised chaplain assessment categories and interventions.