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Nalan Nese, Ruta Gupta, Matthew H. T. Bui, and Mahul B. Amin

Edited by Kerrin G. Robinson

Carcinoma in situ (CIS) of the urinary bladder is defined as a flat lesion comprising of cytologically malignant cells which may involve either full or partial thickness of the urothelium. De novo CIS constitutes less than 3% of all urothelial neoplasms; however, CIS detected concurrently or secondarily during follow-up of urothelial carcinoma constitutes 45% and 90%, respectively, of bladder cancer. CIS is noted predominantly in male smokers in the sixth or seventh decade. Patients may present with dysuria, nocturia, and urinary frequency and urgency with microscopic hematuria. Cystoscopic findings may range from unremarkable to erythema or edema. Urine cytology is an important diagnostic tool. Cellular anaplasia, loss of polarity, discohesion, nuclear enlargement, hyperchromasia, pleomorphism, and atypical mitoses are the histopathologic hallmarks of CIS. Extensive denud ation of the urothelium, monomorphic appearance of the neoplastic cells, inflammatory atypia, radiation induced nuclear smudging, multinucleation, and pagetoid spread of CIS may cause diagnostic difficulties. Together with clinical and morphologic correlation, immunostaining with CK 20, p53 (full thickness), and CD44 (absence of staining) may help accurately diagnose CIS. Fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis of voided urine for amplification of chromosomes 3, 7, and 17 and deletion of 9p has high sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing CIS in surveillance cases. Several other molecular markers, such as NMP 22 and BTA, are under evaluation or used variably in clinical pathology. Intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) instillation is considered the preferred treatment, with radical cystectomy being offered to refractory cases. Chemotherapy, α-interferon, and photodynamic therapy are other modalities that can be considered in BCG-refractory cases. Multifocality, involvement of prostatic urethra, and response to BCG remain the most important prognostic factors, although newer molecular markers are being evaluated for this entity. Patient outcome varies based on whether it is de novo development or diagnosed secondary to prior or concomitant papillary bladder cancer. From a clinical perspective, the principal determinants of outcome are extent of disease, involvement of prostatic urethra, response to therapy, and time to recurrence.

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Kah Poh Loh, Maya Abdallah, Meng-Shiou Shieh, Mihaela S. Stefan, Penelope S. Pekow, Peter K. Lindenauer, Supriya G. Mohile, Dilip Babu, and Tara Lagu

are reliably coded. Patient and Clinical Characteristics We collected demographics including age, sex, race, insurance provider, comorbidities (modified combined comorbidity score derived from the Elixhauser and Charlson comorbidity index

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Matthew P. Banegas, Linda C. Harlan, Bhupinder Mann, and K. Robin Yabroff

regions. Currently, SEER covers approximately 28% of the US population. 7 Information for each patient in SEER is primarily obtained from hospital records and includes tumor characteristics, treatment, and select demographic characteristics. Given that

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Stephen J. Bagley, Suzanna Talento, Nandita Mitra, Neal J. Meropol, Roger B. Cohen, Corey J. Langer, and Anil Vachani

mortality data with results from published literature and the SEER database. Flatiron’s mortality data are estimated to have a sensitivity of 85% to 90%, specificity of 97% to 98%, and accuracy of 95% to 97%. 15 Baseline Characteristics Demographic and

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Brooke E. Wilson, Michelle B. Nadler, Alexandra Desnoyers, and Eitan Amir

anticancer therapy before documenting an event of interest can all result in informative censoring. 3 Differential censoring between the experimental and control arms may also introduce bias, especially if it results in differences in patient characteristics

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Xiang Gao, Amanda R. Kahl, Paolo Goffredo, Albert Y. Lin, Praveen Vikas, Imran Hassan, and Mary E. Charlton

2014. In addition to the traditional demographic and tumor characteristics collected by SEER, the SEER POC study collected additional variables in a sample of patients from various SEER registries. For stage IV colon cancer, these variables included the

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Amit G. Singal, Akbar K. Waljee, Nishant Patel, Emerson Y. Chen, Jasmin A. Tiro, Jorge A. Marrero, and Adam C. Yopp

greater than 200 ng/mL, or histologic confirmation for tumors larger than 1 cm. 20 Tumor characteristics were determined by imaging studies, which had all been interpreted by radiologists at the authors’ institution, and tumor staging was performed using

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Andrea Maurichi, Rosalba Miceli, Roberto Patuzzo, Francesco Barretta, Gianfranco Gallino, Ilaria Mattavelli, Consuelo Barbieri, Andrea Leva, Umberto Cortinovis, Elena Tolomio, Milena Sant, Gianpiero Castelli, Leonardo Zichichi, Giovanni Pellacani, Ignazio Stanganelli, Marco Simonacci, Ausilia Manganoni, Corrado Del Forno, Gioachino Caresana, Catherine Harwood, Daniele Bergamaschi, Konstantinos Lasithiotakis, Dorothy Bennett, Vittoria Espeli, Cristina Mangas, Sandra Leoni Parvex, Barbara Valeri, Mara Cossa, Marta Barisella, Alessandro Pellegrinelli, Claudia Miranda, Andrea Anichini, Roberta Mortarini, Odysseas Zoras, and Mario Santinami

completion lymph node dissection (CLND) as additional therapy. Statistical Methods Clinicopathologic characteristics were recorded according to SNB (performed vs not performed) for the whole series of patients, according to SN status (positive vs negative) in

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Sarju Ganatra, Sourbha S. Dani, Robert Redd, Kimberly Rieger-Christ, Rushin Patel, Rohan Parikh, Aarti Asnani, Vigyan Bang, Katherine Shreyder, Simarjeet S. Brar, Amitoj Singh, Dhruv S. Kazi, Avirup Guha, Salim S. Hayek, Ana Barac, Krishna S. Gunturu, Corrine Zarwan, Anne C. Mosenthal, Shakeeb A. Yunus, Amudha Kumar, Jaymin M. Patel, Richard D. Patten, David M. Venesy, Sachin P. Shah, Frederic S. Resnic, Anju Nohria, and Suzanne J. Baron

and CVD. Abbreviation: CVD, cardiovascular disease. Patient Characteristics Baseline characteristics of patients with COVID-19 are shown in Table 1 . Patients with COVID-19 and a history of cancer were older (aged 77 vs 57 years; P <.001) and more