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Yue Chen, Zi-Qi Zheng, Fo-Ping Chen, Jian-Ye Yan, Xiao-Dan Huang, Feng Li, Ying Sun, and Guan-Qun Zhou

the role of PORT in survival outcome, which would help surgeons and radiologists provide individualized recommendations regarding PORT to patients with ACC. Patients and Methods Patient Characteristics From January 2000 through December 2017, 480

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Vinayak Muralidhar, Paul L. Nguyen, Brandon A. Mahal, David D. Yang, Kent W. Mouw, Brent S. Rose, Clair J. Beard, Jason A. Efstathiou, Neil E. Martin, Martin T. King, and Peter F. Orio III

PSA levels ≥98.0 ng/mL are grouped together without further granularity regarding the exact PSA level. Median age and follow-up were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test; other baseline patient characteristics were compared using the chi-square test

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Willemieke P.M. Dijksterhuis, Anouk E.J. Latenstein, Jessy Joy van Kleef, Rob H.A. Verhoeven, Jeanne H.M. de Vries, Marije Slingerland, Elles Steenhagen, Joos Heisterkamp, Liesbeth M. Timmermans, Marian A.E. de van der Schueren, Martijn G.H. van Oijen, Sandra Beijer, and Hanneke W.M. van Laarhoven

is provided by the patient. 27 Data on patient and tumor characteristics, treatment, and survival were extracted from the Netherlands Cancer Registry (NCR), which is a population-based registry that covers the total Dutch population of >17 million

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Matthew G. Fury, Eric Sherman, Donna Lisa, Neeraj Agarwal, Kenneth Algazy, Bruce Brockstein, Corey Langer, Dean Lim, Ranee Mehra, Sandeep K. Rajan, Susan Korte, Brynna Lipson, Furhan Yunus, Tawee Tanvetyanon, Stephanie Smith-Marrone, Kenneth Ng, Han Xiao, Sofia Haque, and David G. Pfister

more of the first 18 patients (each group treated separately) experienced a dose-limiting toxicity (as defined in the protocol) during cycle 1 or 2, that group would be closed because of excess toxicity. Results Patient Characteristics The

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Min Huang, Joyce O’Shaughnessy, Jing Zhao, Amin Haiderali, Javier Cortes, Scott Ramsey, Andrew Briggs, Vassiliki Karantza, Gursel Aktan, Cynthia Z. Qi, Chenyang Gu, Jipan Xie, Muhan Yuan, John Cook, Michael Untch, Peter Schmid, and Peter A. Fasching

4 RCTs, carboplatin in 3 RCTs, and nab-paclitaxel, everolimus, and anthracycline in 1 RCT each. Different pCR definitions were used across trials, of which ypT0/is ypN0 was the most common. The characteristics of the included trials are listed in

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Nalan Nese, Ruta Gupta, Matthew H. T. Bui, and Mahul B. Amin

Edited by Kerrin G. Robinson

Carcinoma in situ (CIS) of the urinary bladder is defined as a flat lesion comprising of cytologically malignant cells which may involve either full or partial thickness of the urothelium. De novo CIS constitutes less than 3% of all urothelial neoplasms; however, CIS detected concurrently or secondarily during follow-up of urothelial carcinoma constitutes 45% and 90%, respectively, of bladder cancer. CIS is noted predominantly in male smokers in the sixth or seventh decade. Patients may present with dysuria, nocturia, and urinary frequency and urgency with microscopic hematuria. Cystoscopic findings may range from unremarkable to erythema or edema. Urine cytology is an important diagnostic tool. Cellular anaplasia, loss of polarity, discohesion, nuclear enlargement, hyperchromasia, pleomorphism, and atypical mitoses are the histopathologic hallmarks of CIS. Extensive denud ation of the urothelium, monomorphic appearance of the neoplastic cells, inflammatory atypia, radiation induced nuclear smudging, multinucleation, and pagetoid spread of CIS may cause diagnostic difficulties. Together with clinical and morphologic correlation, immunostaining with CK 20, p53 (full thickness), and CD44 (absence of staining) may help accurately diagnose CIS. Fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis of voided urine for amplification of chromosomes 3, 7, and 17 and deletion of 9p has high sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing CIS in surveillance cases. Several other molecular markers, such as NMP 22 and BTA, are under evaluation or used variably in clinical pathology. Intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) instillation is considered the preferred treatment, with radical cystectomy being offered to refractory cases. Chemotherapy, α-interferon, and photodynamic therapy are other modalities that can be considered in BCG-refractory cases. Multifocality, involvement of prostatic urethra, and response to BCG remain the most important prognostic factors, although newer molecular markers are being evaluated for this entity. Patient outcome varies based on whether it is de novo development or diagnosed secondary to prior or concomitant papillary bladder cancer. From a clinical perspective, the principal determinants of outcome are extent of disease, involvement of prostatic urethra, response to therapy, and time to recurrence.

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Omar Abdel-Rahman

important to guide health authorities and practitioners to provide a personalized cancer survivorship message (according to individual characteristics) instead of the currently available generic messages and advice that do not take into consideration the

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Amy A. Kirkham, Karen A. Gelmon, Cheri L. Van Patten, Kelcey A. Bland, Holly Wollmann, Donald C. McKenzie, Taryne Landry, and Kristin L. Campbell

Baseline characteristics were compared between groups using independent t tests and chi-square tests. Relative risk (RR; with 95% confidence intervals and number needed to treat [NNT]) was used to compare categorical metrics of treatment tolerance

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Lucas K. Vitzthum, Chris Straka, Reith R. Sarkar, Rana McKay, J. Michael Randall, Ajay Sandhu, James D. Murphy, and Brent S. Rose

year before PCa diagnosis as previously described. 15 , 16 Table 1. Patient and Tumor Characteristics Information on treatment with ADT was obtained from the VA pharmacy database. CAB was defined as treatment with a nonsteroidal androgen receptor