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Fei Gao, Nan Li, YongMei Xu, and GuoWang Yang

-related mortality and can have a harmful effect on these patients, and was associated with a significant decrease in survival. For patients with <6 positive lymph node metastases who did not receive POCT, however, RT can improve survival time, and for patients with

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Vinayak Muralidhar, Paul L. Nguyen, Brandon A. Mahal, David D. Yang, Kent W. Mouw, Brent S. Rose, Clair J. Beard, Jason A. Efstathiou, Neil E. Martin, Martin T. King, and Peter F. Orio III

), and presence of distant metastases (M0 vs M1). Presence of nodal or distant metastases is recorded in the NCDB before treatment based on coding from patient medical records. The PSA cutoff of ≥98.0 ng/mL was chosen due to limitations in the NCDB: all

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Quisette P. Janssen, Jacob L. van Dam, Laura R. Prakash, Deesje Doppenberg, Christopher H. Crane, Casper H.J. van Eijck, Susannah G. Ellsworth, William R. Jarnagin, Eileen M. O’Reilly, Alessandro Paniccia, Marsha Reyngold, Marc G. Besselink, Matthew H.G. Katz, Ching-Wei D. Tzeng, Amer H. Zureikat, Bas Groot Koerkamp, Alice C. Wei, and for the Trans-Atlantic Pancreatic Surgery (TAPS) Consortium

, a patient who undergoes a resection might be diagnosed with liver metastases 3 months after surgery; in the RT group, the same patient would be diagnosed with liver metastases at restaging after RT and would therefore not end up in the resection

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Matthew D. Galsky, Harry W. Herr, and Dean F. Bajorin

Despite surgery with curative intent, approximately 50% of patients with muscle-invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder will develop distant metastases and succumb to their disease. Attempts to improve outcomes have focused on refining surgical techniques and integrating perioperative chemotherapy. This review summarizes the available literature addressing the role of pelvic lymphadenectomy, neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and adjuvant chemotherapy in the management of patients with muscle-invasive transitional cell carcinoma of bladder.

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Jason Hu, Armen G. Aprikian, Marie Vanhuyse, and Alice Dragomir

-month period before ADT initiation. 37 Metastatic status was also defined from the 18-month period before ADT initiation as the presence of an ICD code related to metastases or use of a metastatic castration-resistant PCa drug (ICD-9 was used for the

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Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) accounts for 15% to 25% of all lung cancers. About 98% of SCLC is attributed to cigarette smoking, whereas the remaining cases are presumably caused by environmental or genetic factors. In 2003, an estimated 34,000 new cases of SCLC will have been diagnosed in the United States. SCLC is distinguished from non-small cell lung cancer by its rapid doubling time, high growth fraction, and early development of widespread metastases.

For the most recent version of the guidelines, please visit NCCN.org

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In the year 2005, an estimated 18,500 new cases of primary brain and nervous system neoplasms will be diagnosed in the United States. These tumors will be responsible for approximately 12,760 deaths. The incidence of primary malignant brain tumors has been increasing over the past 25 years, especially in elderly persons (rates are increasing at about 1.2% each year). Metastatic disease to the central nervous system (CNS) occurs much more frequently, with an incidence about 10 times that of primary brain tumors. It is estimated between 20% and 40% of patients with systemic cancer will develop brain metastases.

For the most recent version of the guidelines, please visit NCCN.org

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The UNMC Eppley Cancer Center at The Nebraska Medical Center

An estimated 38,890 Americans will be diagnosed with kidney cancer and 12,840 will die of this disease in the United States in 2006. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) constitutes approximately 2% of all malignancies, with a median age at diagnosis of 65 years. Smoking and obesity are among the risk factors for RCC development, and tumor grade, local extent of the tumor, presence of regional nodal metastases, and evidence of metastatic disease at presentation are the most important prognostic determinants of 5-year survival. These guidelines discuss evaluation, staging, treatment, and management after treatment.

For the most recent version of the guidelines, please visit NCCN.org

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The University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center

The incidence of primary malignant brain tumors is increasing, especially in the elderly, and metastatic disease to the central nervous system (CNS) occurs even more frequently (an incidence about 10 times that of primary brain tumors). In fact, estimates are that 20% to 40% of patients with systemic cancer will develop brain metastases. Primary and metastatic brain tumors are heterogeneous, with varied outcomes and management strategies. This marked heterogeneity means that prognostic features and treatment options must be carefully reviewed for each patient. As these guidelines note, the involvement of an interdisciplinary team is key in the appropriate management of these patients. Important updates to the guidelines include the addition of systemic chemotherapy as a salvage therapy treatment option for local recurrence and limited metastatic lesions and its deletion as an option for multiple metastatic lesions.

For the most recent version of the guidelines, please visit NCCN.org

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UCSF Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center

Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) accounts for 15% of lung cancers. Nearly all cases of SCLC are attributable to cigarette smoking, and the remaining cases are presumably caused by environmental or genetic factors. Compared with non-small cell lung cancer, SCLC generally has a more rapid doubling time, a higher growth fraction, and earlier development of widespread metastases. SCLC is highly sensitive to initial chemotherapy and radiotherapy, but most patients eventually die from recurrent disease. These guidelines detail the management of SCLC from initial diagnosis and staging through treatment, and include information on supportive and palliative care. Important updates to the 2008 version include refined categories for performance status and the addition of topotecan as an option for patients who experience relapse.

For the most recent version of the guidelines, please visit NCCN.org