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Kari E. Hacker, Shitanshu Uppal, and Carolyn Johnston

-EOCs. 33 , 34 p53 mutations are more likely to occur in HG-EOC, as commonly as 95.9% of the time. 34 – 38 The presence of KRAS and BRAF mutations and expression of p21/WAF1 in LG-sEOC lends further support to their association with sBOT. 34 , 37 A

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David S. Ettinger, Douglas E. Wood, Wallace Akerley, Lyudmila A. Bazhenova, Hossein Borghaei, David Ross Camidge, Richard T. Cheney, Lucian R. Chirieac, Thomas A. D’Amico, Todd L. Demmy, Thomas J. Dilling, M. Chris Dobelbower, Ramaswamy Govindan, Frederic W. Grannis Jr, Leora Horn, Thierry M. Jahan, Ritsuko Komaki, Lee M. Krug, Rudy P. Lackner, Michael Lanuti, Rogerio Lilenbaum, Jules Lin, Billy W. Loo Jr, Renato Martins, Gregory A. Otterson, Jyoti D. Patel, Katherine M. Pisters, Karen Reckamp, Gregory J. Riely, Eric Rohren, Steven E. Schild, Theresa A. Shapiro, Scott J. Swanson, Kurt Tauer, Stephen C. Yang, Kristina Gregory, and Miranda Hughes

ALK gene rearrangements are usually highly sensitive to ALK inhibitors. 4 , 5 , 8 – 10 Other actionable molecular abnormalities continue to be discovered and explored, including BRAF mutations and ROS1 and RET rearrangements. 7 , 21 – 25

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David G. Hewett, Charles J. Kahi, and Douglas K. Rex

KJ Zhao ZZ Karamatic R . High prevalence of sessile serrated adenomas with BRAF mutations: a prospective study of patients undergoing colonoscopy . Gastroenterology 2006 ; 131 : 1400 – 1407 . 55. Weisenberger DJ Siegmund KD Campan M . CpG island

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Katrina S. Pedersen, Kanwal Raghav, and Michael J. Overman

V600E for SBA compared with 73.2% for CRC. 53 A similar finding was found in an analysis of 106 cases in which 11 (10.4%) patients had BRAF mutations but none were BRAF V600E. 61 Distinct differences also exist for ERBB2 . Despite a similar

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Al B. Benson III, J. Pablo Arnoletti, Tanios Bekaii-Saab, Emily Chan, Yi-Jen Chen, Michael A. Choti, Harry S. Cooper, Raza A. Dilawari, Paul F. Engstrom, Peter C. Enzinger, James W. Fleshman Jr., Charles S. Fuchs, Jean L. Grem, James A. Knol, Lucille A. Leong, Edward Lin, Kilian Salerno May, Mary F. Mulcahy, Kate Murphy, Eric Rohren, David P. Ryan, Leonard Saltz, Sunil Sharma, David Shibata, John M. Skibber, William Small Jr., Constantinos T. Sofocleous, Alan P. Venook, and Christopher Willett

that MLH1 expression is absent in the tumor. The presence of a BRAF mutation indicates that MLH1 expression is down-regulated through somatic methylation of the promoter region of the gene and not through a germline mutation. 13 The panel

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Silviya K. Meletath, Dean Pavlick, Tim Brennan, Roy Hamilton, Juliann Chmielecki, Julia A. Elvin, Norma Palma, Jeffrey S. Ross, Vincent A. Miller, Philip J. Stephens, George Snipes, Veena Rajaram, Siraj M. Ali, and Isaac Melguizo-Gavilanes

M Zhukova N Merico D . BRAF mutation and CDKN2A deletion define a clinically distinct subgroup of childhood secondary high-grade glioma . J Clin Oncol 2015 ; 33 : 1015 – 1022 . 23. Robinson GW Orr BA Gajjar A . Complete clinical

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Natasha Satkunam, Xuejiao Wei, James J. Biagi, Sulaiman Nanji, and Christopher M. Booth

Vernerey D . Adjuvant fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin in stage II to III colon cancer: updated 10-year survival and outcomes according to BRAF mutation and mismatch repair status of the MOSAIC study . J Clin Oncol 2015 ; 33 : 4176 – 4187

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Jun Gong, Chongkai Wang, Peter P. Lee, Peiguo Chu, and Marwan Fakih

driven. The addition of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)–targeting agents to conventional cytotoxic therapy based on RAS and BRAF mutation status in mCRC serves as a recent example of selecting optimal therapy according to patient genomic

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Douglas B. Johnson and Jeffrey A. Sosman

is immune-based and includes ipilimumab and interleukin-2 (IL-2), which have activity regardless of BRAF mutational status. Ipilimumab is a monoclonal antibody that blocks the immune checkpoint CTLA-4 (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4) and has

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Michelle T. Ashworth and Adil Daud

possibility of rapid disease progression after discontinuation of treatment, precluding successful completion of subsequent immunotherapy. 23 BRAF mutation status has not been shown to impact response to immunotherapy. 24 Investigational anti-PD1 antibody