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Swaminathan Murugappan, William P. Harris, Christopher G. Willett, and Edward Lin

long-term outcomes in patients with resectable rectal cancer. 26 Table 1 Factors Affecting Local Recurrence After Surgery for Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer The Evolution of Current Treatment Strategies Increased rates of local

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John A. Charlson, Emily L. McGinley, Ann B. Nattinger, Joan M. Neuner, and Liliana E. Pezzin

claims. Our inclusion criteria consisted of women aged 65 to 89 years old identified from Medicare claims as having undergone incident breast cancer surgery in 2006 or 2007, based on a validated algorithm 6 applied to nationwide Medicare Parts A and B

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Anisley Valenciaga, O. Hans Iwenofu, and Gabriel Tinoco

elective robotic hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy 2 weeks later. Final pathology from the surgery revealed PLU with an anterior and posterior size of 7.0 × 6.0 × 2.1 cm and 8.0 × 6.5 × 4.0 cm, respectively. The histopathology was high

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Steven G. Waguespack and Gary Francis

of a palpable thyroid nodule. However, PTC also frequently presents as cervical adenopathy with or without a palpable thyroid lesion, or as an incidental finding after imaging or surgery for an unrelated condition. 26 Occasionally, it may be

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Fabian M. Johnston, Michael N. Mavros, Joseph M. Herman, and Timothy M. Pawlik

situations, a 2-stage hepatectomy may be considered. 11 In general, a 2-stage approach involves an initial minor hepatectomy to remove the CRLM from one hemiliver (typically the left liver). The right portal vein is either ligated at the initial surgery or a

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Michael G. Milligan, Angel M. Cronin, Yolonda Colson, Kenneth Kehl, Debra N. Yeboa, Deborah Schrag, and Aileen B. Chen

and Diagnosis Summary File to determine whether site-specific surgery was performed (a dichotomous variable) and to calculate the length of survival after cancer diagnosis. ICD-9 and CPT codes were used to identify interventions recorded in the

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Annika M. Gustafson, Deborah J. Goldfrank, William A. Dunson, Daniel L. Mulkerin, Rebecca L. Caires, and Keith D. Eaton

. Prevention of adverse outcomes is the shared responsibility of patients, providers, and healthcare organizations. Background Cancer treatment modalities include chemotherapy, radiation, hormone therapy, and surgery, all of which can have adverse effects

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Keli Turner, Sheelu Varghese, and H. Richard Alexander

this natural history, operative strategies designed to control disease progression within the abdominal cavity have been developed and increasingly used over the past 20 years. Currently, cytoreductive surgery (CRS) together with hyperthermic

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Puyao C. Li, Zilu Zhang, Angel M. Cronin, and Rinaa S. Punglia

Background Women with a history of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) are at increased risk for developing a second breast cancer (SBC) in either the ipsilateral or contralateral breast. 1 , 2 Many women receive breast-conserving surgery (BCS) with

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Mark Ulanja, Mohit Rishi, Bryce Beutler, and Santhosh Ambika

adenocarcinoma (AJCC I–III) diagnosed 2004 to 2015. Exposures of interest were geographic region of diagnosis: Western (West), Midwestern (MW), Southern (SO) or North Eastern (NE), and race. The endpoints were: (1) recommendation of no surgery by the provider, (2