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Shades of Survivorship

Elyse R. Park, Jeffrey Peppercorn, and Areej El-Jawahri

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Smoking Cessation, Version 1.2016, NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology

Peter G. Shields, Roy S. Herbst, Douglas Arenberg, Neal L. Benowitz, Laura Bierut, Julie Bylund Luckart, Paul Cinciripini, Bradley Collins, Sean David, James Davis, Brian Hitsman, Andrew Hyland, Margaret Lang, Scott Leischow, Elyse R. Park, W. Thomas Purcell, Jill Selzle, Andrea Silber, Sharon Spencer, Tawee Tanvetyanon, Brian Tiep, Hilary A. Tindle, Reginald Tucker-Seeley, James Urbanic, Monica Webb Hooper, Benny Weksler, C. Will Whitlock, Douglas E. Wood, Jennifer Burns, and Jillian Scavone

Cigarette smoking has been implicated in causing many cancers and cancer deaths. There is mounting evidence indicating that smoking negatively impacts cancer treatment efficacy and overall survival. The NCCN Guidelines for Smoking Cessation have been created to emphasize the importance of smoking cessation and establish an evidence-based standard of care in all patients with cancer. These guidelines provide recommendations to address smoking in patients and outlines behavioral and pharmacologic interventions for smoking cessation throughout the continuum of oncology care.

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A Positive Psychology Intervention in Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Survivors (PATH): A Pilot Randomized Clinical Trial

Hermioni L. Amonoo, Elizabeth Daskalakis, Emma D. Wolfe, Michelle Guo, Christopher M. Celano, Brian C. Healy, Corey S. Cutler, Joseph H. Antin, William F. Pirl, Elyse R. Park, Heather S.L. Jim, Stephanie J. Lee, Thomas W. LeBlanc, Areej El-Jawahri, and Jeff C. Huffman

Background: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) survivors experience significant psychological distress and low levels of positive psychological well-being, which can undermine patient-reported outcomes (PROs), such as quality of life (QoL). Hence, we conducted a pilot randomized clinical trial to assess the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a telephone-delivered positive psychology intervention (Positive Affect for the Transplantation of Hematopoietic stem cells intervention [PATH]) for improving well-being in HSCT survivors. Methods: HSCT survivors who were 100 days post-HSCT for hematologic malignancy at an academic institution were randomly assigned to either PATH or usual care. PATH, delivered by a behavioral health expert, entailed 9 weekly phone sessions on gratitude, personal strengths, and meaning. We defined feasibility a priori as >60% of eligible participants enrolling in the study and >75% of PATH participants completing ≥6 of 9 sessions. At baseline and 9 and 18 weeks, patients self-reported gratitude, positive affect, life satisfaction, optimism, anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), QoL, physical function, and fatigue. We used repeated measures regression models and estimates of effect size (Cohen’s d) to explore the preliminary effects of PATH on outcomes. Results: We enrolled 68.6% (72/105) of eligible patients (mean age, 57 years; 50% female). Of those randomized to PATH, 91% completed all sessions and reported positive psychology exercises as easy to complete and subjectively useful. Compared with usual care, PATH participants reported greater improvements in gratitude (β = 1.38; d = 0.32), anxiety (β = −1.43; d = −0.40), and physical function (β = 2.15; d = 0.23) at 9 weeks and gratitude (β = 0.97; d = 0.22), positive affect (β = 2.02; d = 0.27), life satisfaction (β = 1.82; d = 0.24), optimism (β = 2.70; d = 0.49), anxiety (β = −1.62; d = −0.46), depression (β = −1.04; d = −0.33), PTSD (β = −2.50; d = −0.29), QoL (β = 7.70; d = 0.41), physical function (β = 5.21; d = 0.56), and fatigue (β = −2.54; d = −0.33) at 18 weeks. Conclusions: PATH is feasible, with promising signals for improving psychological well-being, QoL, physical function, and fatigue in HSCT survivors. Future multisite trials that investigate PATH’s efficacy are needed to establish its effects on PROs in this population.

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Smoking Cessation, Version 3.2022, NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology

Peter G. Shields, Laura Bierut, Douglas Arenberg, David Balis, Paul M. Cinciripini, James Davis, Donna Edmondson, Joy Feliciano, Brian Hitsman, Karen S. Hudmon, Michael T. Jaklitsch, Frank T. Leone, Pamela Ling, Danielle E. McCarthy, Michael K. Ong, Elyse R. Park, Judith Prochaska, Argelia J. Sandoval, Christine E. Sheffer, Sharon Spencer, Jamie L. Studts, Tawee Tanvetyanon, Hilary A. Tindle, Elisa Tong, Matthew Triplette, James Urbanic, Gregory Videtic, David Warner, C. Will Whitlock, Beth McCullough, and Susan Darlow

Although the harmful effects of smoking after a cancer diagnosis have been clearly demonstrated, many patients continue to smoke cigarettes during treatment and beyond. The NCCN Guidelines for Smoking Cessation emphasize the importance of smoking cessation in all patients with cancer and seek to establish evidence-based recommendations tailored to the unique needs and concerns of patients with cancer. The recommendations contained herein describe interventions for cessation of all combustible tobacco products (eg, cigarettes, cigars, hookah), including smokeless tobacco products. However, recommendations are based on studies of cigarette smoking. The NCCN Smoking Cessation Panel recommends that treatment plans for all patients with cancer who smoke include the following 3 tenets that should be done concurrently: (1) evidence-based motivational strategies and behavior therapy (counseling), which can be brief; (2) evidence-based pharmacotherapy; and (3) close follow-up with retreatment as needed.