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NCCN Guidelines Insights: Hepatobiliary Cancers, Version 1.2017

Al B. Benson III, Michael I. D'Angelica, Daniel E. Abbott, Thomas A. Abrams, Steven R. Alberts, Daniel A. Anaya, Chandrakanth Are, Daniel B. Brown, Daniel T. Chang, Anne M. Covey, William Hawkins, Renuka Iyer, Rojymon Jacob, Andrea Karachristos, R. Kate Kelley, Robin Kim, Manisha Palta, James O. Park, Vaibhav Sahai, Tracey Schefter, Carl Schmidt, Jason K. Sicklick, Gagandeep Singh, Davendra Sohal, Stacey Stein, G. Gary Tian, Jean-Nicolas Vauthey, Alan P. Venook, Andrew X. Zhu, Karin G. Hoffmann, and Susan Darlow

The NCCN Guidelines for Hepatobiliary Cancers provide treatment recommendations for cancers of the liver, gallbladder, and bile ducts. The NCCN Hepatobiliary Cancers Panel meets at least annually to review comments from reviewers within their institutions, examine relevant new data from publications and abstracts, and reevaluate and update their recommendations. These NCCN Guidelines Insights summarize the panel's discussion and most recent recommendations regarding locoregional therapy for treatment of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

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Neuroendocrine and Adrenal Tumors, Version 2.2021, NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology

Manisha H. Shah, Whitney S. Goldner, Al B. Benson III, Emily Bergsland, Lawrence S. Blaszkowsky, Pamela Brock, Jennifer Chan, Satya Das, Paxton V. Dickson, Paul Fanta, Thomas Giordano, Thorvardur R. Halfdanarson, Daniel Halperin, Jin He, Anthony Heaney, Martin J. Heslin, Fouad Kandeel, Arash Kardan, Sajid A. Khan, Boris W. Kuvshinoff II, Christopher Lieu, Kimberly Miller, Venu G. Pillarisetty, Diane Reidy, Sarimar Agosto Salgado, Shagufta Shaheen, Heloisa P. Soares, Michael C. Soulen, Jonathan R. Strosberg, Craig R. Sussman, Nikolaos A. Trikalinos, Nataliya A. Uboha, Namrata Vijayvergia, Terence Wong, Beth Lynn, and Cindy Hochstetler

The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Neuroendocrine and Adrenal Gland Tumors focus on the diagnosis, treatment, and management of patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), adrenal tumors, pheochromocytomas, paragangliomas, and multiple endocrine neoplasia. NETs are generally subclassified by site of origin, stage, and histologic characteristics. Appropriate diagnosis and treatment of NETs often involves collaboration between specialists in multiple disciplines, using specific biochemical, radiologic, and surgical methods. Specialists include pathologists, endocrinologists, radiologists (including nuclear medicine specialists), and medical, radiation, and surgical oncologists. These guidelines discuss the diagnosis and management of both sporadic and hereditary neuroendocrine and adrenal tumors and are intended to assist with clinical decision-making. This article is focused on the 2021 NCCN Guidelines principles of genetic risk assessment and counseling and recommendations for well-differentiated grade 3 NETs, poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas, adrenal tumors, pheochromocytomas, and paragangliomas.

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Colon Cancer, Version 3.2014

Al B. Benson III, Alan P. Venook, Tanios Bekaii-Saab, Emily Chan, Yi-Jen Chen, Harry S. Cooper, Paul F. Engstrom, Peter C. Enzinger, Moon J. Fenton, Charles S. Fuchs, Jean L. Grem, Steven Hunt, Ahmed Kamel, Lucille A. Leong, Edward Lin, Wells Messersmith, Mary F. Mulcahy, James D. Murphy, Steven Nurkin, Eric Rohren, David P. Ryan, Leonard Saltz, Sunil Sharma, David Shibata, John M. Skibber, Constantinos T. Sofocleous, Elena M. Stoffel, Eden Stotsky-Himelfarb, Christopher G. Willett, Kristina M. Gregory, and Deborah A. Freedman-Cass

The NCCN Guidelines for Colon Cancer address diagnosis, pathologic staging, surgical management, perioperative treatment, posttreatment surveillance, management of recurrent and metastatic disease,and survivorship. This portion of the guidelines focuses on the use of systemic therapy in metastatic disease. The management of metastatic colorectal cancer involves a continuum of care in which patients are exposed sequentially to a variety of active agents, either in combinations or as single agents. Choice of therapy is based on the goals of treatment, the type and timing of prior therapy, the different efficacy and toxicity profiles of the drugs, the mutational status of the tumor, and patient preference.

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Localized Colon Cancer, Version 3.2013

Al B. Benson III, Tanios Bekaii-Saab, Emily Chan, Yi-Jen Chen, Michael A. Choti, Harry S. Cooper, Paul F. Engstrom, Peter C. Enzinger, Marwan G. Fakih, Moon J. Fenton, Charles S. Fuchs, Jean L. Grem, Steven Hunt, Ahmed Kamel, Lucille A. Leong, Edward Lin, Kilian Salerno May, Mary F. Mulcahy, Kate Murphy, Eric Rohren, David P. Ryan, Leonard Saltz, Sunil Sharma, David Shibata, John M. Skibber, William Small Jr, Constantinos T. Sofocleous, Alan P. Venook, Christopher G. Willett, Kristina M. Gregory, and Deborah A. Freedman-Cass

The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology for Colon Cancer begin with the clinical presentation of the patient to the primary care physician or gastroenterologist and address diagnosis, pathologic staging, surgical management, perioperative treatment, patient surveillance, management of recurrent and metastatic disease, and survivorship. The NCCN Colon Cancer Panel meets annually to review comments from reviewers within their institutions and to reevaluate and update their recommendations. In addition, the panel has interim conferences as new data necessitate. These NCCN Guidelines Insights summarize the NCCN Colon Cancer Panel’s discussions regarding the treatment of localized disease for the 2013 update of the guidelines.

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Colon Cancer, Version 1.2017, NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology

Al B. Benson III, Alan P. Venook, Lynette Cederquist, Emily Chan, Yi-Jen Chen, Harry S. Cooper, Dustin Deming, Paul F. Engstrom, Peter C. Enzinger, Alessandro Fichera, Jean L. Grem, Axel Grothey, Howard S. Hochster, Sarah Hoffe, Steven Hunt, Ahmed Kamel, Natalie Kirilcuk, Smitha Krishnamurthi, Wells A. Messersmith, Mary F. Mulcahy, James D. Murphy, Steven Nurkin, Leonard Saltz, Sunil Sharma, David Shibata, John M. Skibber, Constantinos T. Sofocleous, Elena M. Stoffel, Eden Stotsky-Himelfarb, Christopher G. Willett, Christina S. Wu, Kristina M. Gregory, and Deborah Freedman-Cass

This portion of the NCCN Guidelines for Colon Cancer focuses on the use of systemic therapy in metastatic disease. Considerations for treatment selection among 32 different monotherapies and combination regimens in up to 7 lines of therapy have included treatment history, extent of disease, goals of treatment, the efficacy and toxicity profiles of the regimens, KRAS/NRAS mutational status, and patient comorbidities and preferences. Location of the primary tumor, the BRAF mutation status, and tumor microsatellite stability should also be considered in treatment decisions.

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Rectal Cancer, Version 2.2015

Al B. Benson III, Alan P. Venook, Tanios Bekaii-Saab, Emily Chan, Yi-Jen Chen, Harry S. Cooper, Paul F. Engstrom, Peter C. Enzinger, Moon J. Fenton, Charles S. Fuchs, Jean L. Grem, Axel Grothey, Howard S. Hochster, Steven Hunt, Ahmed Kamel, Natalie Kirilcuk, Lucille A. Leong, Edward Lin, Wells A. Messersmith, Mary F. Mulcahy, James D. Murphy, Steven Nurkin, Eric Rohren, David P. Ryan, Leonard Saltz, Sunil Sharma, David Shibata, John M. Skibber, Constantinos T. Sofocleous, Elena M. Stoffel, Eden Stotsky-Himelfarb, Christopher G. Willett, Kristina M. Gregory, and Deborah Freedman-Cass

The NCCN Guidelines for Rectal Cancer begin with the clinical presentation of the patient to the primary care physician or gastroenterologist and address diagnosis, pathologic staging, surgical management, perioperative treatment, posttreatment surveillance, management of recurrent and metastatic disease, and survivorship. The NCCN Rectal Cancer Panel meets at least annually to review comments from reviewers within their institutions, examine relevant new data from publications and abstracts, and reevaluate and update their recommendations. These NCCN Guidelines Insights summarize major discussion points from the 2015 NCCN Rectal Cancer Panel meeting. Major discussion topics this year were perioperative therapy options and surveillance for patients with stage I through III disease.

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Hepatobiliary Cancers, Version 2.2021, NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology

Al B. Benson, Michael I. D’Angelica, Daniel E. Abbott, Daniel A. Anaya, Robert Anders, Chandrakanth Are, Melinda Bachini, Mitesh Borad, Daniel Brown, Adam Burgoyne, Prabhleen Chahal, Daniel T. Chang, Jordan Cloyd, Anne M. Covey, Evan S. Glazer, Lipika Goyal, William G. Hawkins, Renuka Iyer, Rojymon Jacob, R. Kate Kelley, Robin Kim, Matthew Levine, Manisha Palta, James O. Park, Steven Raman, Sanjay Reddy, Vaibhav Sahai, Tracey Schefter, Gagandeep Singh, Stacey Stein, Jean-Nicolas Vauthey, Alan P. Venook, Adam Yopp, Nicole R. McMillian, Cindy Hochstetler, and Susan D. Darlow

The NCCN Guidelines for Hepatobiliary Cancers focus on the screening, diagnosis, staging, treatment, and management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), gallbladder cancer, and cancer of the bile ducts (intrahepatic and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma). Due to the multiple modalities that can be used to treat the disease and the complications that can arise from comorbid liver dysfunction, a multidisciplinary evaluation is essential for determining an optimal treatment strategy. A multidisciplinary team should include hepatologists, diagnostic radiologists, interventional radiologists, surgeons, medical oncologists, and pathologists with hepatobiliary cancer expertise. In addition to surgery, transplant, and intra-arterial therapies, there have been great advances in the systemic treatment of HCC. Until recently, sorafenib was the only systemic therapy option for patients with advanced HCC. In 2020, the combination of atezolizumab and bevacizumab became the first regimen to show superior survival to sorafenib, gaining it FDA approval as a new frontline standard regimen for unresectable or metastatic HCC. This article discusses the NCCN Guidelines recommendations for HCC.

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NCCN Guidelines Insights: Neuroendocrine and Adrenal Tumors, Version 2.2018

Manisha H. Shah, Whitney S. Goldner, Thorvardur R. Halfdanarson, Emily Bergsland, Jordan D. Berlin, Daniel Halperin, Jennifer Chan, Matthew H. Kulke, Al B. Benson III, Lawrence S. Blaszkowsky, Jennifer Eads, Paul F. Engstrom, Paul Fanta, Thomas Giordano, Jin He, Martin J. Heslin, Gregory P. Kalemkerian, Fouad Kandeel, Sajid A. Khan, Wajih Zaheer Kidwai, Pamela L. Kunz, Boris W. Kuvshinoff II, Christopher Lieu, Venu G. Pillarisetty, Leonard Saltz, Julie Ann Sosa, Jonathan R. Strosberg, Craig A. Sussman, Nikolaos A. Trikalinos, Nataliya A. Uboha, Jonathan Whisenant, Terence Wong, James C. Yao, Jennifer L. Burns, Ndiya Ogba, and Griselda Zuccarino-Catania

The NCCN Guidelines for Neuroendocrine and Adrenal Tumors provide recommendations for the management of adult patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), adrenal gland tumors, pheochromocytomas, and paragangliomas. Management of NETs relies heavily on the site of the primary NET. These NCCN Guidelines Insights summarize the management options and the 2018 updates to the guidelines for locoregional advanced disease, and/or distant metastasis originating from gastrointestinal tract, bronchopulmonary, and thymus primary NETs.

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NCCN Guidelines Insights: Hepatobiliary Cancers, Version 2.2019

Featured Updates to the NCCN Guidelines

Al B. Benson III, Michael I. D’Angelica, Daniel E. Abbott, Thomas A. Abrams, Steven R. Alberts, Daniel A. Anaya, Robert Anders, Chandrakanth Are, Daniel Brown, Daniel T. Chang, Jordan Cloyd, Anne M. Covey, William Hawkins, Renuka Iyer, Rojymon Jacob, Andreas Karachristos, R. Kate Kelley, Robin Kim, Manisha Palta, James O. Park, Vaibhav Sahai, Tracey Schefter, Jason K. Sicklick, Gagandeep Singh, Davendra Sohal, Stacey Stein, G. Gary Tian, Jean-Nicolas Vauthey, Alan P. Venook, Lydia J. Hammond, and Susan D. Darlow

The NCCN Guidelines for Hepatobiliary Cancers provide treatment recommendations for cancers of the liver, gallbladder, and bile ducts. The NCCN Hepatobiliary Cancers Panel meets at least annually to review comments from reviewers within their institutions, examine relevant new data from publications and abstracts, and reevaluate and update their recommendations. These NCCN Guidelines Insights summarize the panel’s discussion and updated recommendations regarding systemic therapy for first-line and subsequent-line treatment of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

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Anal Carcinoma, Version 2.2012

Featured Updates to the NCCN Guidelines

Al B. Benson III, J. Pablo Arnoletti, Tanios Bekaii-Saab, Emily Chan, Yi-Jen Chen, Michael A. Choti, Harry S. Cooper, Raza A. Dilawari, Paul F. Engstrom, Peter C. Enzinger, Marwan G. Fakih, James W. Fleshman Jr., Charles S. Fuchs, Jean L. Grem, Lucille A. Leong, Edward Lin, Kilian Salerno May, Mary F. Mulcahy, Kate Murphy, Eric Rohren, David P. Ryan, Leonard Saltz, Sunil Sharma, David Shibata, John M. Skibber, William Small Jr., Constantinos T. Sofocleous, Alan P. Venook, Christopher Willett, and Deborah A. Freedman-Cass

The workup and management of squamous cell anal carcinoma, which represents the most common histologic form of the disease, are addressed in the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Anal Carcinoma. These NCCN Guidelines Insights provide a summary of major discussion points of the 2012 NCCN Anal Carcinoma Panel meeting. In summary, the panel made 4 significant changes to the 2012 NCCN Guidelines for Anal Carcinoma: 1) local radiation therapy was added as an option for the treatment of patients with metastatic disease; 2) multifield technique is now preferred over anteroposterior-posteroanterior (AP-PA) technique for radiation delivery and the AP-PA technique is no longer recommended as the standard of care; 3) PET/CT should now be considered for radiation therapy planning; and 4) a section on risk reduction was added to the discussion section. In addition, the panel discussed the use of PET/CT for the workup of anal canal cancer and decided to maintain the recommendation that it can be considered in this setting. They also discussed the use of PET/CT for the workup of anal margin cancer and for the assessment of treatment response. They reaffirmed their recommendation that PET/CT is not appropriate in these settings.