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Updates in HER2-Positive and Triple-Negative Breast Cancers

Presented by: Melinda L. Telli and William J. Gradishar

The recent approval of 4 agents for the treatment of patients with metastatic HER2-positive breast cancer has led to expanded recommendations in the NCCN Guidelines for treatment of this disease. For triple-negative disease, immunotherapy continues to gain traction in this challenging subtype, both in the preoperative and metastatic settings, though not yet as adjuvant treatment. Sacituzumab govitecan is another new agent with strong utility in triple-negative disease, and PARP inhibitors are recommended options in BRCA-mutated disease.

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NCCN Guidelines Updates: Breast Cancer

Sharon H. Giordano, Anthony D. Elias, and William J. Gradishar

The emergence of CDK4/6 inhibitors has changed the treatment algorithm for advanced/metastatic estrogen receptor–positive breast cancer. In pivotal trials of palbociclib, ribociclib, and abemaciclib, doubling in progression-free survival has been seen. All 3 agents in this class are now included in the NCCN Guidelines for Breast Cancer, and clinicians should be incorporating these agents into their treatment algorithms. The other important issue in this breast cancer setting is extended duration of endocrine therapy. Most of the benefit is modest and toxicity is an issue; therefore, extended-duration endocrine therapy should be highly individualized. For triple-negative disease, platinum agents and PARP inhibitors are helping some patients, but immunotherapies and other novel classes of drugs now in development hold the promise of even better outcomes. In HER2-positive early-stage disease, dual HER2 blockade is of modest benefit, and extended treatment with neratinib may be a good option for some high-risk patients.

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NCCN Guidelines Updates: Breast Cancer

Melinda L. Telli, William J. Gradishar, and John H. Ward

Advances in molecular testing have ushered in the new era of precision medicine. The 2018 publication of the TAILORx trial helped refine the use of genetic expression assays, specifically the 21-gene recurrence score, in assigning patients to endocrine therapy alone or with chemotherapy. The NCCN Guidelines for Breast Cancer explore the clinical applications of this study. The algorithm for managing the axilla in early breast cancer has been further refined, based on the presence or absence of clinical evidence of lymph node involvement. Ovarian suppression has been validated as the optimal approach in higher risk premenopausal women, based on updated analysis of the SOFT and TEXT pivotal trials. In the metastatic setting, the NCCN Guidelines further reinforce the benefit of the CDK4/6 inhibitors, extending the “preferred” recommendation to all the available agents in metastatic disease. Options in triple-negative breast cancer now include, for the first time, an immunotherapeutic agent.

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Diagnostic and Treatment Considerations When Newly Diagnosed Breast Cancer Coincides With Pregnancy: A Case Report and Review of Literature

Lauren Nye, Timothy K. Huyck, and William J. Gradishar

Breast cancer is the most common malignancy associated with pregnancy and is a rare but well-recognized complication. It is hypothesized that as more women continue to delay childbearing, the incidence of breast cancer in pregnancy will increase. Because of the lack of clinical experience with breast cancer in the setting of pregnancy, given its relative infrequency, many patients and physicians believe the diagnosis puts the life of the mother at odds with that of the fetus, but available data suggest that termination of the pregnancy does not improve the outcome for pregnant women with breast cancer. Often diagnosis is delayed because neither patient nor physician suspects malignancy. This report presents a recent case of a young primigravid woman with a newly appreciated breast mass seen at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine as a means of discussing diagnostic considerations, therapeutic options, and supportive care available to the practitioner when managing a pregnant patient with breast cancer.

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BPI20-017: Innovating Patient-Facing Care Pathways in Breast Cancer Using the 4R model, 4R = Right Information / Care / Patient / Time

Della F. Makower, Christine Brezina Weldon, Julia R. Trosman, Kent Hoskins, Cathleen Schaeffer, Bruce D. Rapkin, Melissa A. Simon, Al B. Benson, and William J. Gradishar

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NCCN Task Force Report: Adjuvant Therapy for Breast Cancer

Robert W. Carlson, Elizabeth Brown, Harold J. Burstein, William J. Gradishar, Clifford A. Hudis, Charles Loprinzi, Eleftherios Paul Mamounas, Edith A. Perez, Kathleen Pritchard, Peter Ravdin, Abram Recht, George Somlo, Richard L. Theriault, Eric P. Winer, Antonio C. Wolff, and for the NCCN Adjuvant Therapy for Breast Cancer Task Force

Abstract

The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) first published the NCCN Breast Cancer Treatment Guidelines in 1996. The Guidelines address the treatment of all stages of breast cancer across the spectrum of patient care and have been updated yearly. Adjuvant therapy for breast cancer has undergone an especially rapid evolution over the past few years. Therefore, the NCCN Breast Cancer Guidelines Panel was supplemented by additional experts to form the Adjuvant Therapy Task Force to provide a forum for an extended discussion and expanded input to the adjuvant therapy recommendations for the Breast Cancer Treatment Guidelines. Issues discussed included methods of risk-stratification for recurrence; how biologic markers such as HER2 status, quantitative estrogen receptor, or genetic markers can be incorporated as prognostic or predictive factors; and how age, menopausal status, and estrogen receptor levels impact benefits from chemotherapy and endocrine therapy. Additionally, the task force discussed the strategies for use of aromatase inhibitors in postmenopausal women and the potential incorporation of trastuzumab into adjuvant therapy of women with HER2/neu positive breast cancer. This supplement summarizes the background data and ensuing discussion from the Adjvuant Task Force meeting. (JNCCN 2006;4[suppl 1]:S-1–S-26)

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Modification and Implementation of NCCN Guidelines™ on Breast Cancer in the Middle East and North Africa Region

Omalkhair Abulkhair, Nagi Saghir, Lobna Sedky, Ahmed Saadedin, Heba Elzahwary, Neelam Siddiqui, Mervat Al Saleh, Fady Geara, Nuha Birido, Nadia Al-Eissa, Sana Al Sukhun, Huda Abdulkareem, Menar Mohamed Ayoub, Fawaz Deirawan, Salah Fayaz, Alaa Kandil, Sami Khatib, Mufid El-Mistiri, Dorria Salem, El Siah Hassan Sayd, Mohammed Jaloudi, Mohammad Jahanzeb, and William I. Gradishar

Published data from the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region indicate suboptimal quality of cancer care, while the World Health Organization predicts an increase in cancer cases in developing countries. Major advances in breast cancer management mandate the development of guidelines to improve the quality and efficacy of oncology practice in the MENA region. A Breast Cancer Regional Guidelines Committee was organized and activated, comprising experts from various regional cancer institutions. The multidisciplinary team included 12 medical oncologists, 3 radiation oncologists, 2 radiologists, 2 surgeons, and 1 pathologist. The committee members agreed on adapting the current NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) on Breast Cancer for use in the MENA region to achieve common practice standards for treating patients. The members suggested several modifications to the guidelines, especially those related to risk factor profiles. United States–based NCCN experts reviewed these recommendations before final approval. The MENA–NCCN Breast Cancer Guidelines modification process was the first initiative in the development of common practice guidelines in the region. This project may serve as a foundation for the development of evidence-based practice standards, and improve collaborative projects and initiatives.

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Invasive Breast Cancer Version 1.2016, NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology

William J. Gradishar, Benjamin O. Anderson, Ron Balassanian, Sarah L. Blair, Harold J. Burstein, Amy Cyr, Anthony D. Elias, William B. Farrar, Andres Forero, Sharon Hermes Giordano, Matthew Goetz, Lori J. Goldstein, Clifford A. Hudis, Steven J. Isakoff, P. Kelly Marcom, Ingrid A. Mayer, Beryl McCormick, Meena Moran, Sameer A. Patel, Lori J. Pierce, Elizabeth C. Reed, Kilian E. Salerno, Lee S. Schwartzberg, Karen Lisa Smith, Mary Lou Smith, Hatem Soliman, George Somlo, Melinda Telli, John H. Ward, Dorothy A. Shead, and Rashmi Kumar

Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women in the United States and is second only to lung cancer as a cause of cancer death. The overall management of breast cancer includes the treatment of local disease with surgery, radiation therapy, or both, and the treatment of systemic disease with cytotoxic chemotherapy, endocrine therapy, biologic therapy, or combinations of these. This article outlines the NCCN Guidelines specific to breast cancer that is locoregional (restricted to one region of the body), and discusses the management of clinical stage I, II, and IIIA (T3N1M0) tumors. For NCCN Guidelines on systemic adjuvant therapy after locoregional management of clinical stage I, II and IIIA (T3N1M0) and for management for other clinical stages of breast cancer, see the complete version of these guidelines at NCCN.org.

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Breast Cancer Version 2.2015

William J. Gradishar, Benjamin O. Anderson, Ron Balassanian, Sarah L. Blair, Harold J. Burstein, Amy Cyr, Anthony D. Elias, William B. Farrar, Andres Forero, Sharon Hermes Giordano, Matthew Goetz, Lori J. Goldstein, Clifford A. Hudis, Steven J. Isakoff, P. Kelly Marcom, Ingrid A. Mayer, Beryl McCormick, Meena Moran, Sameer A. Patel, Lori J. Pierce, Elizabeth C. Reed, Kilian E. Salerno, Lee S. Schwartzberg, Karen Lisa Smith, Mary Lou Smith, Hatem Soliman, George Somlo, Melinda Telli, John H. Ward, Dorothy A. Shead, and Rashmi Kumar

Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women in the United States and is second only to lung cancer as a cause of cancer death. The overall management of breast cancer includes the treatment of local disease with surgery, radiation therapy, or both, and the treatment of systemic disease with cytotoxic chemotherapy, endocrine therapy, biologic therapy, or combinations of these. This portion of the NCCN Guidelines discusses recommendations specific to the locoregional management of clinical stage I, II, and IIIA (T3N1M0) tumors.

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Invasive Breast Cancer

Robert W. Carlson, D. Craig Allred, Benjamin O. Anderson, Harold J. Burstein, W. Bradford Carter, Stephen B. Edge, John K. Erban, William B. Farrar, Andres Forero, Sharon Hermes Giordano, Lori J. Goldstein, William J. Gradishar, Daniel F. Hayes, Clifford A. Hudis, Britt-Marie Ljung, David A. Mankoff, P. Kelly Marcom, Ingrid A. Mayer, Beryl McCormick, Lori J. Pierce, Elizabeth C. Reed, Jasgit Sachdev, Mary Lou Smith, George Somlo, John H. Ward, Antonio C. Wolff, and Richard Zellars