These NCCN Guidelines Insights focus on some of the major updates to the 2014 NCCN Guidelines for Thyroid Carcinoma. Kinase inhibitor therapy may be used to treat thyroid carcinoma that is symptomatic and/or progressive and not amenable to treatment with radioactive iodine. Sorafenib may be considered for select patients with metastatic differentiated thyroid carcinoma, whereas vandetanib or cabozantinib may be recommended for select patients with metastatic medullary thyroid carcinoma. Other kinase inhibitors may be considered for select patients with either type of thyroid carcinoma. A new section on “Principles of Kinase Inhibitor Therapy in Advanced Thyroid Cancer” was added to the NCCN Guidelines to assist with using these novel targeted agents.
R. Michael Tuttle, Robert I. Haddad, Douglas W. Ball, David Byrd, Paxton Dickson, Quan-Yang Duh, Hormoz Ehya, Megan Haymart, Carl Hoh, Jason P. Hunt, Andrei Iagaru, Fouad Kandeel, Peter Kopp, Dominick M. Lamonica, William M. Lydiatt, Judith McCaffrey, Jeffrey F. Moley, Lee Parks, Christopher D. Raeburn, John A. Ridge, Matthew D. Ringel, Randall P. Scheri, Jatin P. Shah, Steven I. Sherman, Cord Sturgeon, Steven G. Waguespack, Thomas N. Wang, Lori J. Wirth, Karin G. Hoffmann, and Miranda Hughes
Robert I. Haddad, Christian Nasr, Lindsay Bischoff, Naifa Lamki Busaidy, David Byrd, Glenda Callender, Paxton Dickson, Quan-Yang Duh, Hormoz Ehya, Whitney Goldner, Megan Haymart, Carl Hoh, Jason P. Hunt, Andrei Iagaru, Fouad Kandeel, Peter Kopp, Dominick M. Lamonica, Bryan McIver, Christopher D. Raeburn, John A. Ridge, Matthew D. Ringel, Randall P. Scheri, Jatin P. Shah, Rebecca Sippel, Robert C. Smallridge, Cord Sturgeon, Thomas N. Wang, Lori J. Wirth, Richard J. Wong, Alyse Johnson-Chilla, Karin G. Hoffmann, and Lisa A. Gurski
The NCCN Guidelines for Thyroid Carcinoma provide recommendations for the management of different types of thyroid carcinoma, including papillary, follicular, Hürthle cell, medullary, and anaplastic carcinomas. These NCCN Guidelines Insights summarize the panel discussion behind recent updates to the guidelines, including the expanding role of molecular testing for differentiated thyroid carcinoma, implications of the new pathologic diagnosis of noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features, and the addition of a new targeted therapy option for BRAF V600E–mutated anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.
Jaffer A. Ajani, Thomas A. D’Amico, David J. Bentrem, Joseph Chao, David Cooke, Carlos Corvera, Prajnan Das, Peter C. Enzinger, Thomas Enzler, Paul Fanta, Farhood Farjah, Hans Gerdes, Michael K. Gibson, Steven Hochwald, Wayne L. Hofstetter, David H. Ilson, Rajesh N. Keswani, Sunnie Kim, Lawrence R. Kleinberg, Samuel J. Klempner, Jill Lacy, Quan P. Ly, Kristina A. Matkowskyj, Michael McNamara, Mary F. Mulcahy, Darryl Outlaw, Haeseong Park, Kyle A. Perry, Jose Pimiento, George A. Poultsides, Scott Reznik, Robert E. Roses, Vivian E. Strong, Stacey Su, Hanlin L. Wang, Georgia Wiesner, Christopher G. Willett, Danny Yakoub, Harry Yoon, Nicole McMillian, and Lenora A. Pluchino
Gastric cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Over 95% of gastric cancers are adenocarcinomas, which are typically classified based on anatomic location and histologic type. Gastric cancer generally carries a poor prognosis because it is often diagnosed at an advanced stage. Systemic therapy can provide palliation, improved survival, and enhanced quality of life in patients with locally advanced or metastatic disease. The implementation of biomarker testing, especially analysis of HER2 status, microsatellite instability (MSI) status, and the expression of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), has had a significant impact on clinical practice and patient care. Targeted therapies including trastuzumab, nivolumab, and pembrolizumab have produced encouraging results in clinical trials for the treatment of patients with locally advanced or metastatic disease. Palliative management, which may include systemic therapy, chemoradiation, and/or best supportive care, is recommended for all patients with unresectable or metastatic cancer. Multidisciplinary team management is essential for all patients with localized gastric cancer. This selection from the NCCN Guidelines for Gastric Cancer focuses on the management of unresectable locally advanced, recurrent, or metastatic disease.
Robert I Haddad, Lindsay Bischoff, Douglas Ball, Victor Bernet, Erik Blomain, Naifa Lamki Busaidy, Michael Campbell, Paxton Dickson, Quan-Yang Duh, Hormoz Ehya, Whitney S. Goldner, Theresa Guo, Megan Haymart, Shelby Holt, Jason P. Hunt, Andrei Iagaru, Fouad Kandeel, Dominick M. Lamonica, Susan Mandel, Stephanie Markovina, Bryan McIver, Christopher D. Raeburn, Rod Rezaee, John A. Ridge, Mara Y. Roth, Randall P. Scheri, Jatin P. Shah, Jennifer A. Sipos, Rebecca Sippel, Cord Sturgeon, Thomas N. Wang, Lori J. Wirth, Richard J. Wong, Michael Yeh, Carly J. Cassara, and Susan Darlow
Differentiated thyroid carcinomas is associated with an excellent prognosis. The treatment of choice for differentiated thyroid carcinoma is surgery, followed by radioactive iodine ablation (iodine-131) in select patients and thyroxine therapy in most patients. Surgery is also the main treatment for medullary thyroid carcinoma, and kinase inhibitors may be appropriate for select patients with recurrent or persistent disease that is not resectable. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is almost uniformly lethal, and iodine-131 imaging and radioactive iodine cannot be used. When systemic therapy is indicated, targeted therapy options are preferred. This article describes NCCN recommendations regarding management of medullary thyroid carcinoma and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, and surgical management of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (papillary, follicular, Hürthle cell carcinoma).