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The Role of Cytoreductive/Debulking Surgery in Ovarian Cancer

Mark T. Wakabayashi, Paul S. Lin, and Amy A. Hakim

Edited by Kerrin G. Robinson

Ovarian cancer is the fifth most common cause of cancer-related death among women in the United States, although the median survival of patients has been increasing over the past few decades. In patients with epithelial ovarian cancer, chemotherapy has increased survival. Platinum agents combined with taxanes have become standard treatment. Intraperitoneal chemotherapy has also increased survival. Cytoreductive surgery to optimally debulk a tumor or, ideally, remove any gross disease has also been shown to increase survival. Each 10% increase in cytoreduction correlates with a 5.5% increase in median survival. The ability to successfully perform optimal cytoreduction ranges from 20% to 90%. Many institutions have recently begun to perform aggressive/ultraradical procedures to achieve this result. Interval cytoreduction may also benefit patients whose initial surgery is suboptimal, especially if the first procedure was performed by a surgeon unfamiliar with the disease. Secondary cytoreduction can increase survival in patients with low-volume disease and a long disease-free interval. All of these procedures should be performed by a specialist trained in ovarian cancer surgery.

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Management of Adrenocortical Carcinoma

Jonathan R. Strosberg, Gary D. Hammer, and Gerard M. Doherty

Edited by Kerrin G. Robinson

Adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs) are rare tumors that arise from the cortex of the adrenal gland with an incidence 1 to 2 per million. The rarity of this tumor translates into a paucity of experience in managing patients in most medical centers. Because clinical series are small and prospective evaluation of treatment strategies is limited, the current state of knowledge is strongly influenced by expert consensus opinion from a few medical centers specializing in ACCs. This article describes the basic diagnostic and prognostic issues in adrenal cancer management, and presents detailed rationales for therapeutic management.

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The Challenges of Colorectal Cancer Survivorship

Crystal S. Denlinger and Andrea M. Barsevick

Edited by Kerrin G. Robinson

With advances in treatment, colorectal cancer (CRC) is being transformed from a deadly disease into an illness that is increasingly curable. With this transformation has come increased interest in the unique problems, risks, needs, and concerns of survivors who have completed treatment and are cancer-free. Research has shown that physical and mental quality of life for CRC survivors was inferior compared with age-matched individuals without cancer. Although issues and symptoms were most prominent during the first 3 years, long-term effects of treatment can persist and include fatigue, sleep difficulty, fear of recurrence, anxiety, depression, negative body image, sensory neuropathy, gastrointestinal problems, urinary incontinence, and sexual dysfunction. The unique challenges and issues of CRC survivors can and should be addressed by health care providers and the research community to ensure effective interventions and models of care to manage these problems. This article discusses what is known about the long-term effects of CRC treatment on quality of life, the care of survivors, and existing models of survivorship care.

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Carcinoma in situ of the Urinary Bladder: Review of Clinicopathologic Characteristics with an Emphasis on Aspects Related to Molecular Diagnostic Techniques and Prognosis

Nalan Nese, Ruta Gupta, Matthew H. T. Bui, and Mahul B. Amin

Edited by Kerrin G. Robinson

Carcinoma in situ (CIS) of the urinary bladder is defined as a flat lesion comprising of cytologically malignant cells which may involve either full or partial thickness of the urothelium. De novo CIS constitutes less than 3% of all urothelial neoplasms; however, CIS detected concurrently or secondarily during follow-up of urothelial carcinoma constitutes 45% and 90%, respectively, of bladder cancer. CIS is noted predominantly in male smokers in the sixth or seventh decade. Patients may present with dysuria, nocturia, and urinary frequency and urgency with microscopic hematuria. Cystoscopic findings may range from unremarkable to erythema or edema. Urine cytology is an important diagnostic tool. Cellular anaplasia, loss of polarity, discohesion, nuclear enlargement, hyperchromasia, pleomorphism, and atypical mitoses are the histopathologic hallmarks of CIS. Extensive denud ation of the urothelium, monomorphic appearance of the neoplastic cells, inflammatory atypia, radiation induced nuclear smudging, multinucleation, and pagetoid spread of CIS may cause diagnostic difficulties. Together with clinical and morphologic correlation, immunostaining with CK 20, p53 (full thickness), and CD44 (absence of staining) may help accurately diagnose CIS. Fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis of voided urine for amplification of chromosomes 3, 7, and 17 and deletion of 9p has high sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing CIS in surveillance cases. Several other molecular markers, such as NMP 22 and BTA, are under evaluation or used variably in clinical pathology. Intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) instillation is considered the preferred treatment, with radical cystectomy being offered to refractory cases. Chemotherapy, α-interferon, and photodynamic therapy are other modalities that can be considered in BCG-refractory cases. Multifocality, involvement of prostatic urethra, and response to BCG remain the most important prognostic factors, although newer molecular markers are being evaluated for this entity. Patient outcome varies based on whether it is de novo development or diagnosed secondary to prior or concomitant papillary bladder cancer. From a clinical perspective, the principal determinants of outcome are extent of disease, involvement of prostatic urethra, response to therapy, and time to recurrence.

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Indications for Breast MRI in the Patient with Newly Diagnosed Breast Cancer

Constance D. Lehman, Wendy DeMartini, Benjamin O. Anderson, and Stephen B. Edge

Edited by Kerrin G. Robinson

Use of breast MRI in the preoperative evaluation of patients recently diagnosed with breast cancer has increased significantly over the past 10 years because of its well-documented high sensitivity for detecting otherwise occult breast cancer in the affected and contralateral breasts. However, published research reports on the impact of this improved cancer detection are limited. Equally important are growing concerns that the quality of breast MRI may vary significantly across practice sites, and therefore the published value of MRI may not be achieved for many patients. This article describes the peer-reviewed, published clinical research trials evaluating breast MRI in patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer on which the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) practice guidelines are based. The current NCCN guidelines recommend that breast MRI be considered for patients with a newly diagnosed breast cancer to evaluate the extent of ipsilateral disease and to screen the contralateral breast, particularly for women at increased risk for mammographically occult disease. In addition, the guidelines indicate that breast MRI may be used for patients with axillary nodal adenocarcinoma to identify the primary malignancy. The guidelines stress the importance of having proper equipment, imaging technique, and provider training necessary to achieve high-quality breast MRI, and emphasize that MRI practice sites should have the ability to perform MRI-guided biopsy or needle localization. In addition to describing the data regarding use of breast MRI in women with newly diagnosed cancer, this article provides recommendations for the performance of high-quality breast MRI and suggestions for future research.