Treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) continues to advance, as evidenced by the improved risk stratification of patients and development of newer treatment options. Identification of ALL subtypes based on immunophenotyping and cytogenetic and molecular markers has resulted in the inclusion of Philadelphia-like ALL and early T-cell precursor ALL as subtypes that affect prognosis. Identification of Ikaros mutations has also emerged as a prognostic factor. In addition to improved prognostication, treatment options for patients with ALL have expanded, particularly with regard to relapsed/refractory ALL. Continued development of second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors and the emergence of immunotherapy, including blinatumomab and chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy, have improved survival. Furthermore, incorporation of minimal residual disease (MRD) monitoring has shown insight into patient outcomes and may lead to treatment modification or alternative treatment strategies in select populations. This excerpt focuses on the sections of the ALL guidelines specific to clinical presentation and diagnosis, treatment of relapsed/refractory ALL, and incorporation of MRD monitoring. To view the most recent complete version of these guidelines, visit NCCN.org.
Joseph C. Alvarnas, Patrick A. Brown, Patricia Aoun, Karen Kuhn Ballen, Stefan K. Barta, Uma Borate, Michael W. Boyer, Patrick W. Burke, Ryan Cassaday, Januario E. Castro, Peter F. Coccia, Steven E. Coutre, Lloyd E. Damon, Daniel J. DeAngelo, Dan Douer, Olga Frankfurt, John P. Greer, Robert A. Johnson, Hagop M. Kantarjian, Rebecca B. Klisovic, Gary Kupfer, Mark Litzow, Arthur Liu, Arati V. Rao, Bijal Shah, Geoffrey L. Uy, Eunice S. Wang, Andrew D. Zelenetz, Kristina Gregory, and Courtney Smith
Arnel Pallera, Jessica K. Altman, Ellin Berman, Camille N. Abboud, Bhavana Bhatnagar, Peter Curtin, Daniel J. DeAngelo, Jason Gotlib, R. Tanner Hagelstrom, Gabriela Hobbs, Madan Jagasia, Hagop M. Kantarjian, Patricia Kropf, Leland Metheny, Joseph O. Moore, Evelena Ontiveros, Enkhtsetseg Purev, Albert Quiery, Vishnu V.B. Reddy, Michal G. Rose, Neil P. Shah, B. Douglas Smith, David S. Snyder, Kendra L. Sweet, Raoul Tibes, David T. Yang, Kristina Gregory, Hema Sundar, Michael Deininger, and Jerald P. Radich
The NCCN Guidelines for Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) provide recommendations for the management of chronic-phase and advanced-phase CML in adult patients. The median age of disease onset is 67 years. However, because CML occurs in all age groups, clinical care teams should be prepared to address issues relating to fertility and pregnancy with patients who are of reproductive age at the time of diagnosis. CML is relatively rare in children and there are no evidence-based recommendations for the management of CML in pediatric population. These NCCN Guidelines Insights discuss special considerations for the management of CML during pregnancy and for the management of CML in the pediatric population.