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Cancer Rehabilitation: Impact on Breast Cancer Survivors’ Work Ability and Health-Related Quality of Life

Mackenzi Pergolotti, Kelley C. Wood, Tiffany Kendig, Kim Love, and Stacye Mayo

Background: Breast cancer survivors (BCSs) report persistent, diminished ability to work, and decreased health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Cancer rehabilitation interventions (physical therapy or occupational therapy [PT/OT]) aim to improve these outcomes, but little is known about their impact in the community. Methods: This retrospective, pre-post, uncontrolled study examined cases of younger BCSs (age <65 years) who attended cancer-specialized PT/OT over a 2-year period. Outcomes and covariates (age, race, US region, payer type, number of visits, length of care [weeks]) were extracted from electronic medical records. Patient-reported outcomes were overall-Work Ability Score (WASoverall), physical-WAS (WASphysical), and mental-WAS (WASmental) and PROMIS Global Physical Health (GPH), Global Mental Health (GMH), Physical Function (PF), and Ability to Participate in Social Roles and Activities (SRA). We used linear mixed effect models to examine pre- to post-rehabilitation change overall, and separately, while controlling for covariates. Results: PT/OT cases (NPT=758; NOT=140) had a mean [SD] age of 51.39 [8.49] years and attended approximately 12 visits (IQR, 8.0–19.0) over 10.71 weeks (IQR, 6.14–17.00). Overall, work ability outcomes (WASoverall: +1.79; WASphysical: +0.78; WASmental: +0.47; all P<.001) and HRQoL outcomes improved significantly (GPH: +5.38; GMH: +2.90; PF: +5.17; SRA: +5.83; all P<.001), and average change on each HRQoL outcome exceeded the minimal important change (2 points). Outcome scores were similar at each timepoint for both PT and OT cases (all P>.05) and both groups improved significantly (all P<.01). Conclusions: In this large study of the impact of cancer-specialized, community-based PT and OT, younger BCSs reported significant improvement in ability to work and HRQoL. Although more research is needed, these findings suggest improved access to PT/OT could improve work ability and HRQoL for younger BCSs.

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Improved Survival in Contemporary Community-Based Patients With Metastatic Clear-Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma Undergoing Active Treatment

Reha-Baris Incesu, Simone Morra, Lukas Scheipner, Andrea Baudo, Letizia Maria Ippolita Jannello, Mario de Angelis, Carolin Siech, Anis Assad, Zhe Tian, Fred Saad, Shahrokh F. Shariat, Felix K. H. Chun, Alberto Briganti, Ottavio de Cobelli, Luca Carmignani, Sascha Ahyai, Nicola Longo, Derya Tilki, Markus Graefen, and Pierre I. Karakiewicz

Background: We hypothesized that the evolving treatment paradigms recommended based on phase III trials may have translated into improved overall survival (OS) in contemporary community-based patients with clear-cell metastatic renal cell carcinoma (ccmRCC) undergoing active treatment. Patients and Methods: Within the SEER database, contemporary (2017–2020) and historical (2010–2016) patients with ccmRCC treated with either systemic therapy (ST), cytoreductive nephrectomy (CN), or both (ST+CN) were identified. Univariable and multivariable Cox-regression models were used. Results: Overall, 993 (32%) contemporary versus 2,106 (68%) historical patients with ccmRCC were identified. Median OS was 41 months in contemporary versus 25 months in historical patients (Δ=16 months; P<.001). In multivariable Cox-regression analyses, contemporary membership was independently associated with lower overall mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 0.7; 95% CI, 0.6–0.8; P<.001). In patients treated with ST alone, median OS was 17 months in contemporary versus 10 months in historical patients (Δ=7 months; P<.001; multivariable HR, 0.7; P=.005). In patients treated with CN alone, median OS was not reached in contemporary versus 33 months in historical patients (Δ=not available; P<.001; multivariable HR, 0.7; P<.001). In patients treated with ST+CN, median OS was 38 months in contemporary versus 26 months in historical patients (Δ=12 months; P<.001; multivariable HR, 0.7; P=.003). Conclusions: Contemporary community-based patients with ccmRCC receiving active treatment clearly exhibited better survival than their historical counterparts, when examined as one group, as well as when examined as separate subgroups according to treatment type. Treatment advancements of phase III trials seem to be applied appropriately outside of centers of excellence.

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Demographic Disparities in Lung Cancer Mortality and Trends in the United States From 1999 Through 2020: A Population-Based CDC Database Analysis

Alexander J. Didier, Logan Roof, and James Stevenson

Background: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the United States and is projected to account for 127,070 deaths in 2023. Although the lung cancer mortality rate has been decreasing over the last decade, demographic disparities in mortality still exist. We sought to determine the impact of demographic factors on lung cancer mortality and trends in the United States. Patients and Methods: We queried the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) database for mortality statistics with an underlying cause of death of lung and bronchus cancer from 1999 through 2020. Age-adjusted mortality rates (AAMR) were calculated per 100,000 people. We assessed the AAMR by demographic variables, including race, geographic density, sex, age, and US census region. Temporal trends were evaluated using Joinpoint regression software, and average annual percent change (APC) was calculated. Results: From 1999 through 2020, lung cancer led to 3,380,830 deaths. The AAMR decreased by 55.1 to 31.8, with an associated average APC of −2.6%. In 1999, men had an AAMR almost twice as high as women, but these differences became less pronounced over time. Rural populations experienced the highest AAMR and the slowest rate of decrease compared with urban populations, who experienced the lowest AAMR and fastest decrease. Non-Hispanic Black individuals experienced the highest AAMR, with an annual decrease of −3.0%. The West experienced the fastest decrease at −3.1% annually, whereas the Midwest experienced the slowest decrease at −2.0% annually. Conclusions: Although the mortality rate of lung cancer has been decreasing since 1999, not all demographic groups have experienced the same rates of decrease, and disparities in outcomes are still prevalent. Vulnerable subgroups need targeted interventions, such as the incorporation of patient navigators, improved screening chest CT scan access and follow-up, and telehealth expansion, which will improve the likelihood of earlier-stage diagnoses and the potential for curative treatments.

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Volume 22 (2024): Issue 2D (Jun 2024)

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Colon Cancer, Version 3.2024, NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology

Al B. Benson III, Alan P. Venook, Mohamed Adam, George Chang, Yi-Jen Chen, Kristen K. Ciombor, Stacey A. Cohen, Harry S. Cooper, Dustin Deming, Ignacio Garrido-Laguna, Jean L. Grem, Paul Haste, J. Randolph Hecht, Sarah Hoffe, Steven Hunt, Hisham Hussan, Kimberly L. Johung, Nora Joseph, Natalie Kirilcuk, Smitha Krishnamurthi, Midhun Malla, Jennifer K. Maratt, Wells A. Messersmith, Jeffrey Meyerhardt, Eric D. Miller, Mary F. Mulcahy, Steven Nurkin, Michael J. Overman, Aparna Parikh, Hitendra Patel, Katrina Pedersen, Leonard Saltz, Charles Schneider, David Shibata, Benjamin Shogan, John M. Skibber, Constantinos T. Sofocleous, Anna Tavakkoli, Christopher G. Willett, Christina Wu, Lisa A. Gurski, Jenna Snedeker, and Frankie Jones

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the fourth most frequently diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Management of disseminated metastatic CRC involves various active drugs, either in combination or as single agents. The choice of therapy is based on consideration of the goals of therapy, the type and timing of prior therapy, the mutational profile of the tumor, and the differing toxicity profiles of the constituent drugs. This manuscript summarizes the data supporting the systemic therapy options recommended for metastatic CRC in the NCCN Guidelines for Colon Cancer.

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Hello JNCCN Readers

Daniel M. Geynisman

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Highlights of the NCCN Oncology Research Program

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Lower Risks of New-Onset Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Treated With SGLT2 Inhibitors Versus DPP4 Inhibitors

Oscar Hou In Chou, Jing Ning, Raymond Ngai Chiu Chan, Cheuk To Chung, Helen Huang, Kenrick Ng, Edward Christopher Dee, Sharen Lee, Apichat Kaewdech, Ariel K Man Chow, Nancy Kwan Man, Tong Liu, Fengshi Jing, Bernard Man Yung Cheung, Gary Tse, and Jiandong Zhou

Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) may be a risk factor for development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The association between risk of developing HCC and treatment with sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) versus dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP4i) is currently unknown. This study aimed to compare the risk of new-onset HCC in patients treated with SGLT2i versus DPP4i. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of patients with T2DM in Hong Kong receiving either SGLT2i or DPP4i between January 1, 2015, and December 31, 2020. Patients with concurrent DPP4i and SGLT2i use were excluded. Propensity score matching (1:1 ratio) was performed by using the nearest neighbor search. Multivariable Cox regression was applied to identify significant predictors. Results: A total of 62,699 patients were included (SGLT2i, n=22,154; DPP4i, n=40,545). After matching (n=44,308), 166 patients (0.37%) developed HCC: 36 in the SGLT2i group and 130 in the DPP4i group over 240,269 person-years. Overall, SGLT2i use was associated with lower risks of HCC (hazard ratio [HR], 0.42; 95% CI, 0.28–0.79) compared with DPP4i after adjustments. The association between SGLT2i and HCC development remained significant in patients with cirrhosis or advanced fibrosis (HR, 0.12; 95% CI, 0.04–0.41), hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (HR, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.17–0.59), or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection (HR, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.22–0.80). The results were consistent in different risk models, propensity score approaches, and sensitivity analyses. Conclusions: SGLT2i use was associated with a lower risk of HCC compared with DPP4i use after adjustments, and in the context of cirrhosis, advanced fibrosis, HBV infection, and HCV infection.

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NCCN Guidelines® Insights: Systemic Mastocytosis, Version 3.2024

Featured Updates to the NCCN Guidelines

Jason Gotlib, Aaron T. Gerds, Peter Abdelmessieh, Haris Ali, Mariana Castells, Andrew Dunbar, Ruth Fein Revell, Tracy I. George, Steven Green, Krishna Gundabolu, Elizabeth Hexner, Tania Jain, Catriona Jamieson, Paul R. Kaesberg, Andrew T. Kuykendall, Yazan Madanat, Naveen Manchanda, Lucia Masarova, Jori May, Brandon McMahon, Sanjay R. Mohan, Kalyan V. Nadiminti, Stephen Oh, Jeanne Palmer, Ami Patel, Anand A. Patel, Nikolai Podoltsev, Lindsay Rein, Rachel Salit, Moshe Talpaz, Martha Wadleigh, Sarah Wall, Mary Anne Bergman, and Cindy Hochstetler

Mastocytosis is a heterogeneous group of disorders comprising cutaneous mastocytosis, systemic mastocytosis, and mast cell sarcoma. It is associated with a variety of symptoms related to the release of mast cell mediators and mast cell tissue infiltration. Referral to specialized centers with expertise in the management of mastocytosis and multidisciplinary collaboration with subspecialists (eg, allergists for the management of anaphylaxis and drug hypersensitivities, anesthesiologists for invasive procedures or surgery, high-risk obstetrician for pregnancy) is recommended. The NCCN Guidelines for Systemic Mastocytosis provide evidence- and consensus-based recommendations for the diagnosis and comprehensive care of patients with systemic mastocytosis. The multidisciplinary panel of experts convenes at least once a year to review requested changes to the guidelines from both internal and external entities as well as to discuss data on existing and new therapies. These NCCN Guidelines Insights focus on some of the recent updates to the guidelines.