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## Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of 177Lu-PSMA-617 Radioligand Therapy in Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

Background: Metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer poses a therapeutic challenge with poor prognosis. The VISION trial showed prolonged progression-free and overall survival in patients treated with lutetium Lu 177 vipivotide tetraxetan (177Lu-PSMA-617) radioligand therapy compared with using the standard of care (SoC) alone. The objective of this study was to determine the cost-effectiveness of 177Lu-PSMA-617 treatment compared with SoC therapy. Methods: A partitioned survival model was developed using data from the VISION trial, which included overall and progression-free survival and treatment regimens for 177Lu-PSMA-617 and SoC. Treatment costs, utilities for health states, and adverse events were derived from public databases and the literature. Because 177Lu-PSMA-617 was only recently approved, costs for treatment were extrapolated from 177Lu-DOTATATE. Outcome measurements included the incremental cost, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness ratio. The analysis was performed in a US setting from a healthcare system perspective over the lifetime horizon of 60 months. The willingness-to-pay threshold was set to $50,000,$100,000, and $200,000 per quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Results: The 177Lu-PSMA-617 group was estimated to gain 0.42 incremental QALYs. Treatment using 177Lu-PSMA-617 led to an increase in costs compared with SoC ($169,110 vs $85,398). The incremental cost, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness ratio for 177Lu-PSMA-617 therapy was$200,708/QALYs. Sensitivity analysis showed robustness of the model regarding various parameters, which remained cost-effective at all lower and upper parameter bounds. In probabilistic sensitivity analysis using Monte Carlo simulation with 10,000 iterations, therapy using 177Lu-PSMA-617 was determined as the cost-effective strategy in 37.14% of all iterations at a willingness-to-pay threshold of \$200,000/QALYs. Conclusions: Treatment using 177Lu-PSMA-617 was estimated to add a notable clinical benefit over SoC alone. Based on the model results, radioligand therapy represents a treatment strategy for patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer with cost-effectiveness in certain scenarios.

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## Early Application of Next-Generation Sequencing Identifies Pancreatic Mass as Metastasis From an EGFR-Mutated Lung Adenocarcinoma

Pancreatic metastasis of primary lung adenocarcinoma is a rare occurrence, accounting for <0.3% of all pancreatic malignancies. Given that the prognosis and treatment options for primary pancreatic cancer differ greatly from pancreatic metastases from a primary site, an accurate diagnosis is critical. This report presents a unique case of a 65-year-old man who was admitted with significant unintentional weight loss, fatigue, abdominal pain, and jaundice, and found to have a pancreatic mass initially thought to be primary pancreatic adenocarcinoma and subsequently diagnosed as an EGFR-mutated lung adenocarcinoma with metastases to the pancreas via early application of next-generation sequencing (NGS). The use of NGS early in the patient’s clinical course not only changed the treatment strategy but also drastically altered the prognosis. Although metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma has a poor prognosis and survival rate, treatment of EGFR-mutated non–small cell lung cancer with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors is associated with high response rates. Importantly, our case demonstrates that timely application of NGS very early in the disease course is paramount to the diagnosis, management, and prognosis of solid malignancies.

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## Immunoglobulin Light Chain Amyloidosis: Diagnosis and Risk Assessment

Immunoglobulin light chain (AL) amyloidosis is a clonal plasma cell disorder with multiple clinical presentations. The diagnosis of AL amyloidosis requires a high index of suspicion, making a delay in diagnosis common, which contributes to the high early mortality seen in this disease. Establishing the diagnosis of AL amyloidosis requires the demonstration of tissue deposition of amyloid fibrils. A bone marrow biopsy and fat pad aspirate performed concurrently have a high sensitivity for the diagnosis of AL amyloidosis and negate the need for organ biopsies in most patients. An accurate diagnosis requires amyloid typing via additional testing, including tissue mass spectrometry. Prognostication for AL amyloidosis is largely driven by the organs impacted. Cardiac involvement represents the single most important prognostic marker, and the existing staging systems are driven by cardiac biomarkers. Apart from organ involvement, plasma cell percentage on the bone marrow biopsy, specific fluorescence in situ hybridization findings, age at diagnosis, and performance status are important prognostic markers. This review elaborates on the diagnostic testing and prognostication for patients with newly diagnosed AL amyloidosis.

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## Impact of Anti-HER2 Therapy Alone and With Weekly Paclitaxel on the Ovarian Reserve of Young Women With HER2-Positive Breast Cancer

Background: The potential gonadotoxicity of anti-HER2 agents remains largely unknown, and limited, conflicting evidence exists for taxanes. Antimüllerian hormone (AMH) is an established biomarker of ovarian reserve that may aid in quantifying anticancer treatment–induced gonadotoxicity. Patients and Methods: The present biomarker analysis of the randomized phase III neoadjuvant NeoALTTO trial included premenopausal women aged ≤45 years at diagnosis of HER2-positive early breast cancer with available frozen serum samples at baseline (ie, before anticancer treatments), at week 2 (ie, the “biological window” of anti-HER2 therapy alone), and/or at the time of surgery (ie, after completing paclitaxel + anti-HER2 therapy, before starting adjuvant chemotherapy). Results: The present analysis included 130 patients with a median age of 38 years (interquartile ratio [IQR], age 33–42 years). AMH values at the 3 time points differed significantly (P<.001). At baseline, median AMH levels were 1.29 ng/mL (IQR, 0.56–2.62 ng/mL). At week 2, a small but significant reduction in AMH levels was observed (median, 1.10 ng/mL; IQR, 0.45–2.09 ng/mL; P<.001). At surgery, a larger significant decline in AMH levels was observed (median, 0.01 ng/mL; IQR, 0.01–0.03 ng/mL; P<.001). Although the type of anti-HER2 treatment (trastuzumab and/or lapatinib) did not seem to impact the results, age and pretreatment ovarian reserve had a major influence on treatment-induced gonadotoxicity risk. Conclusions: This NeoALTTO biomarker analysis showed that anti-HER2 therapies alone had limited gonadotoxicity but that the addition of weekly paclitaxel resulted in marked AMH decline with possible negative implications for subsequent ovarian function and fertility.

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## Indicators of Clinical Trajectory in Patients With Cancer Who Receive Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

Background: Patients with cancer who require cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) historically have had low survival to hospital discharge; however, overall CPR outcomes and cancer survival have improved. Identifying patients with cancer who are unlikely to survive CPR could guide and improve end-of-life discussions prior to cardiac arrest. Methods: Demographics, clinical variables, and outcomes including immediate and hospital survival for patients with cancer aged ≥18 years who required in-hospital CPR from 2012 to 2015 were collected. Indicators capturing the overall declining clinical and oncologic trajectory (ie, no further therapeutic options for cancer, recommendation for hospice, or recommendation for do not resuscitate) prior to CPR were determined a priori and manually identified. Results: Of 854 patients with cancer who underwent CPR, the median age was 63 years and 43.6% were female; solid cancers accounted for 60.6% of diagnoses. A recursive partitioning model selected having any indicator of declining trajectory as the most predictive factor in hospital outcome. Of our study group, 249 (29%) patients were found to have at least one indicator identified prior to CPR and only 5 survived to discharge. Patients with an indicator were more likely to die in the hospital and none were alive at 6 months after discharge. These patients were younger (median age, 59 vs 64 years; P≤.001), had a higher incidence of metastatic disease (83.0% vs 62.9%; P<.001), and were more likely to undergo CPR in the ICU (55.8% vs 36.5%; P<.001) compared with those without an indicator. Of patients without an indicator, 145 (25%) were discharged alive and half received some form of cancer intervention after CPR. Conclusions: Providers can use easily identifiable indicators to ascertain which patients with cancer are at risk for death despite CPR and are unlikely to survive to discharge. These findings can guide discussions regarding utility of resuscitation and the lack of further cancer interventions even if CPR is successful.

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## Individualized Approach to Management of Light Chain Amyloidosis

Systemic light chain (AL) amyloidosis is caused by a B-cell (most commonly plasma cell) clone that produces a toxic light chain that forms amyloid fibrils in tissues and causes severe, progressive organ dysfunction. The clinical presentation is protean, and patients are usually extremely frail, thus requiring careful adaptation of the treatment approach. However, the severity of organ involvement can be accurately assessed with biomarkers that allow a sharp prognostic stratification and precise tailoring of the treatment strategy. Moreover, the availability of biomarker-based response criteria also allows adjustment of the treatment approach over time. The recent completion of 3 large randomized clinical trials has offered new evidence for designing appropriate treatments. All this information has recently been integrated in the joint guidelines of the International Society of Amyloidosis and the European Hematology Association for the treatment of AL amyloidosis. Other clinical trials are underway testing new agents directed against the amyloid clone and the amyloid deposits. Our understanding of the peculiarities of the amyloid clone, as well as our ability to detect residual clonal disease and improve organ dysfunction, are also being refined and will result in more precise personalization of the treatment approach.