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Hanyu Chen, Jie Liu, Xiaoyu Zong, Ai Zhang, Jennifer Tappenden, Thomas Walsh, Deyali Chatterjee, Ryan Courtney Fields, Graham Andrew Colditz and Yin Cao

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Tim Luetkens, Sabarinath Venniyil Radhakrishnan, Sandra D. Scherer, Patricia Davis, Erica R. Vander Mause, Michael L. Olson, Sara Yousef, Jens Panse, Yasmina Abdiche, K. David Li, Rodney R. Miles, William Matsui, Alana L. Welm and Djordje Atanackovic

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Nancy Danielle Ebelt, Edith Zuniga and Edwin Ramos Manuel

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Elizabeth Stewart, Kaley Blankenship, Lauren Hoffmann and Burgess Freeman

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Julie Hallet, Laura Davis, Alyson Mahar, Michail Mavros, Kaitlyn Beyfuss, Ying Liu, Calvin H.L. Law, Craig Earle and Natalie Coburn

Background: Although pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PA) surgery performed by high-volume (HV) providers yields better outcomes, volume–outcome relationships are unknown for medical oncologists. This study examined variation in practice and outcomes in noncurative management of PA based on medical oncology provider volume. Methods: This population-based cohort study linked administrative healthcare datasets and included nonresected PA from 2005 through 2016. The volume of PA consultations per medical oncology provider per year was divided into quintiles, with HV providers (≥16 patients/year) constituting the fifth quintile and low-volume (LV) providers the first to fourth quintiles. Outcomes were receipt of chemotherapy and overall survival (OS). The Brown-Forsythe-Levene (BFL) test for equality of variances was performed to assess outcome variability between provider-volume quintiles. Multivariate regression models were used to examine the association between management by HV provider and outcomes. Results: A total of 7,062 patients with noncurable PA consulted with medical oncology providers. Variability was seen in receipt of chemotherapy and median survival based on provider volume (BFL, P<.001 for both), with superior 1-year OS for HV providers (30.1%; 95% CI, 27.7%–32.4%) compared with LV providers (19.7%; 95% CI, 18.5%–20.6%) (P<.001). After adjustment for age at diagnosis, sex, comorbidity burden, rural residence, income, and diagnosis period, HV provider care was independently associated with higher odds of receiving chemotherapy (odds ratio, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.05–1.34) and with superior OS (hazard ratio, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.74–0.84). Conclusions: Significant variation was seen in noncurative management and outcomes of PA based on provider volume, with management by an HV provider being independently associated with superior OS and higher odds of receiving chemotherapy. This information is important to inform disease care pathways and care organization. Cancer care systems could consider increasing the number of HV providers to reduce variation and improve outcomes.

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Thomas W. Flaig, Philippe E. Spiess, Neeraj Agarwal, Rick Bangs, Stephen A. Boorjian, Mark K. Buyyounouski, Sam Chang, Tracy M. Downs, Jason A. Efstathiou, Terence Friedlander, Richard E. Greenberg, Khurshid A. Guru, Thomas Guzzo, Harry W. Herr, Jean Hoffman-Censits, Christopher Hoimes, Brant A. Inman, Masahito Jimbo, A. Karim Kader, Subodh M. Lele, Jeff Michalski, Jeffrey S. Montgomery, Lakshminarayanan Nandagopal, Lance C. Pagliaro, Sumanta K. Pal, Anthony Patterson, Elizabeth R. Plimack, Kamal S. Pohar, Mark A. Preston, Wade J. Sexton, Arlene O. Siefker-Radtke, Jonathan Tward, Jonathan L. Wright, Lisa A. Gurski and Alyse Johnson-Chilla

This selection from the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Bladder Cancer focuses on the clinical presentation and workup of suspected bladder cancer, treatment of non–muscle-invasive urothelial bladder cancer, and treatment of metastatic urothelial bladder cancer because important updates have recently been made to these sections. Some important updates include recommendations for optimal treatment of non–muscle-invasive bladder cancer in the event of a bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) shortage and details about biomarker testing for advanced or metastatic disease. The systemic therapy recommendations for second-line or subsequent therapies have also been revised. Treatment and management of muscle-invasive, nonmetastatic disease is covered in the complete version of the NCCN Guidelines for Bladder Cancer available at NCCN.org. Additional topics covered in the complete version include treatment of nonurothelial histologies and recommendations for nonbladder urinary tract cancers such as upper tract urothelial carcinoma, urothelial carcinoma of the prostate, and primary carcinoma of the urethra.

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Megan Randall, Kelly Burgess, Lela Buckingham and Lydia Usha

PARP inhibitors are known to be effective in patients with ovarian cancer (OC) and germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes (BRCA mutations). Little is known, however, about any correlation between the deletion size and location of the BRCA mutation and the response to PARP inhibitors. Women with OC commonly undergo genetic testing because the presence of a germline BRCA mutation impacts therapeutic decisions and is important for cancer surveillance in patients and their family members. This report presents a case of a rare entire germline BRCA1 gene deletion and an exceptional response to a PARP inhibitor, olaparib, in a heavily pretreated patient with OC. Her disease course was also remarkable for complete responses to platinum-based chemotherapy and long chemotherapy-free intervals. Interestingly, the deletion of the entire BRCA1 gene was found after previously negative BRCA test results and is associated with a deletion of 6 adjacent genes without known clinical significance. She has remained progression-free and asymptomatic for >3 years on olaparib, with an overall survival of >12 years. We postulate that this unusually favorable response and prolonged overall survival is related to the cancer cells’ inability to reverse the entire gene deletion to wild-type (a common mechanism of resistance to PARP inhibition). This case shows the value of genetic testing for patients with OC and highlights the utility of additional testing with previously negative results and limited genetic testing. It also provides insight into a potential mechanism of an exceptional response to PARP inhibition.